What is the difference between black olives and olives and which is healthier?

The main differences between olives and black olives

Olives and olives are the fruits of the same tree, and the main difference is the degree of ripeness. The fresh product is not intended for consumption as it has a bitter aftertaste.

The fruits grow on evergreen olive trees, and after harvesting they are processed in factories and subjected to special canning technology. More mature olives develop into black olives with a purple hue and wrinkled skin.

At the same time, green fruits can be treated with special substances (oxygen oxide, iron gluconate) to achieve the required degree of readiness, which is not very beneficial for the body.

In order to purchase a quality product, it is important to buy trusted brands and correctly evaluate the organoleptic characteristics of canned olives (the presence of an uneven black tint indicating the gradual ripening of the fruit).

If the fruits are collected from the same tree, then why are they different colors?

There is a common misconception that a green canned olive is an unripe fruit, but a black olive is the most ripe fruit. This is wrong. Although the fruits of the olive tree do change color from green to almost black during ripening, the most liquid specimens are never used for preservation - it is much more profitable for farmers to make oil from them.

Unripe fruits, which can be either greenish, red-black or even dark purple, are always rolled into jars. During the preservation process, all these “berries” will turn either green or black. Those fruits that were pickled without access to oxygen will turn into olives, and the olives will darken greatly as a result of oxidation.

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Chemical composition and energy value

The chemical composition of olives is based on the content of the following components:

  • vitamins A, B, E, C, K;
  • minerals (potassium, calcium, magnesium, fluorine, sodium, phosphorus, iron, selenium, zinc);
  • cellulose;
  • saturated fatty acids;
  • catechin, pectin;
  • phytosterol.

The calorie content of canned olives is 115 calories per 100 grams. BJU ratio:

  • proteins 0.84 g;
  • fats 10.68 g;
  • carbohydrates 3.06 g.

Due to its relatively low calorie content, the canned product can be used as a dietary food in the preparation of various dishes.

Canning olives

Olives, or olives, are the fruit of the olive tree.

For technical processing, mainly mature black olives are used, which are subjected to lactic acid fermentation and preserved by dry salting or in saline solution. In addition, they use unripe green olives, which are produced only in a saline solution.

According to the chemical composition, black olives contain 30-40% dry matter, including: up to 30% fat, about 2% proteins, 5% carbohydrates, among which glucose predominates, and a significant amount of minerals. Green olives have about 20% dry matter, including 12% fat. They also contain vitamins C and B1.

Olives in saline solution

. Processing of black and green olives to obtain this product is carried out separately.

Abroad (in the USA, Spain) they practice treating green olives with alkali in order to give them a black color. They are kept in a 2% solution of caustic soda until the alkali penetrates into the fruit to 2/3 of the thickness of the fruit. After alkaline treatment, the olives are soaked in cold water for 1-1.5 days, periodically changing the water. However, the quality of the finished product as a result of such processing is low. Browning of green olives can also be caused by aeration. Under the influence of atmospheric oxygen, tannins are oxidized, giving dark-colored products.

The olives are placed in barrels and filled with a 5% solution of table salt. Salting creates the necessary conditions for fermentation. In addition, during the salting process, the bitter glucoside oleouropein is removed from the olives along with the juice, the content of which in the raw material ranges from 2 to 10%, depending on the ripeness of the fruit. There is no need to completely remove oleouropein, since a slight bitter taste is normal for the finished product.

To activate the lactic acid fermentation process, NH4Cl (at the rate of 0.15% nitrogen to the amount of brine) or (NH4)2HPO4 can be added to the brine. Good results are obtained by adding 1% sugar and 2% tomato juice to the brine. Tomato juice should be added to the brine immediately, and sugar should be added on the second day of fermentation. In addition, during the first 3-5 days of fermentation, a saturated solution of table salt is added to the vats, bringing the brine concentration to 6%.

Among the lactic acid microorganisms isolated during the fermentation of green olives, Lactobacillus planfarum and Lactobacillus Delbruckii predominate. In addition, it contains Aerobacter cloacae, Achromobacter, Aerobacter aerogencs, yeasts - Debarvomyces nicolionae, Candida parapsilopsis, etc.

Good results are obtained by introducing pure Lact cultures into brine. pentosus and L. plantarum. Pure culture starter is added in an amount of 2% to the volume of brine on the second day of fermentation.

The initial temperature of the brine with which the olives are poured can be high (up to 90°C), but when introducing pure culture starter, it should not exceed 35°C.

During the fermentation process, make sure that the olives are covered with brine at all times. Otherwise, a film consisting of yeast and mold fungi will form on the surface, sharply deteriorating the quality of the product.

Fermentation lasts 5-6 weeks and ends when the acidity reaches 0.3-0.6% in terms of lactic acid; The pH is 4-3.5. The color of the olives becomes golden with a yellowish-green tint. The content of table salt in the product should be 4-4.5%.

During the fermentation process, the following types of spoilage of olives can occur: the appearance of a “sage” taste, butyric acid fermentation, the formation of gas bubbles under the influence of microorganisms of the Aerobacter group or yeast.

These types of defects are caused by insufficient salt content or slow lactic acid fermentation. To avoid this, lactic acid is added to the brine so that the pH is below 4.0.

Olives that have undergone fermentation are sorted by size and color, rinsed with water and packaged in glass jars, filled with a 7% solution of table salt. The jars are rolled up and sterilized at 120°C.

Dry pickled black olives

. To make this product, olives of full biological maturity are used, at which they reach their greatest size and are black in color.

Fruits received for processing are sorted by quality, maturity and size, while defective specimens are simultaneously rejected. The sorted raw materials are washed, re-inspected and rinsed, and then salted.

Salting of olives is carried out in wooden baths or in barrels, which it is advisable to pre-paraffinate in order to eliminate the influence of the tannins of the container on the product. Olives are dry salted by sprinkling them with salt. The ratio of raw materials and salt is 2.5: 1. The salted olives are covered with a cloth, the bath is closed with a lid and the product is left at a temperature of 18-25 ° C for 30-35 days. During this time, the olives are shoveled 7-8 times every 3-4 days to ensure uniform salting. Shovelling must be done very carefully so as not to damage the fruits.

Good results are obtained by fractional salting (in three steps), in which 30-35% of the total required amount of salt is added at the beginning, and then the rest of the salt is added at intervals of 5-6 days.

Salt causes plasmolysis of cells and the release of cell sap, along with which oleouropein is partially removed. Ready olives contain 6-7% table salt and have an acidity of 0.7%, calculated as lactic acid.

After processing is completed, the juice is filtered, the olives are inspected, washed with water and oiled with olive oil, which is consumed in an amount of up to 2.5% by weight of the olives. Finished products are stored at a temperature of 10-12° C and a relative air humidity of 75%.

Spoilage of olives during storage is caused by microbiological factors and is most often associated with improper implementation of the fermentation process or unfavorable storage conditions. In particular, spots and blisters may appear on the surface of olives as a result of yeast development. Microbes bifermentas and sporogenes were found in spoiled olives.

Weight loss during storage of olives depends mainly on storage temperature and, to a small extent, on the size and ripeness of the fruit. So, over 3.5 months of storage, the losses were: in the refrigerator 4%, in the warehouse 9%, in the thermostat 10-11%.

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Beneficial features

Beneficial properties of canned olives:

  • cleansing the body of toxins, waste and other harmful substances;
  • improving the functioning of the digestive tract;
  • prevention of persistent constipation;
  • normalization of the nervous system;
  • reducing the level of bad cholesterol in the blood;
  • maintaining vital processes in the body;
  • prevention of the formation of gallstones and male impotence;
  • improvement of emotional state, prevention of natural aging processes;
  • strengthening nails, hair, bone tissue;
  • restoration and renewal of the skin;
  • prevention of the development of oncological processes;
  • strengthening vision and memory;
  • restoration of blood circulation and normalization of the cardiovascular system;
  • Providing an antihistamine effect on the body.

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Benefits of olives for the female body:

  • improvement of the general condition of nails, hair, skin;
  • eliminating excess weight;
  • saturating the body with useful substances, especially during pregnancy and breastfeeding;
  • beneficial effects on the reproductive system.

How to choose a quality product

In order to choose high-quality canned olives, you need to consider some recommendations:

  • checking the country of origin and the corresponding expiration date of the canned product;
  • high-quality olives should have an uneven shade of dark color and medium size;
  • the jar of olives should not have any visual damage or signs of deterioration (bloating, dents);
  • on a jar of a quality product, the presence of a special code must be indicated that determines the size of the olives in the jar (a large number indicates a larger number of pieces in the container);
  • It is best to purchase canned olives in open glass containers, since organoleptic characteristics can be determined by the appearance of the raw materials.

What can you cook from olives?

Canned olives are most often used for making pizza, various salads, and as a savory addition to meat, fish, and cold appetizers. The most popular recipes are discussed below.

Pizza with olives, vegetables and mushrooms

Required ingredients:

  • mushrooms of your choice 200 grams;
  • cherry tomatoes 100 grams;
  • yeast dough 450 grams;
  • tomato paste or ketchup to taste;
  • hard cheese 200 grams;
  • olives 12 pieces;
  • bell pepper 2 pieces;
  • onions 2 pieces;
  • vegetable oil for frying.

Currently reading: Olives and black olives: beneficial properties, application features

Cooking diagram:

  • yeast dough is pre-defrosted;
  • mushrooms are cut into thin slices along with onions and fried over medium heat until half cooked;
  • tomatoes are cut into small circles;
  • peppers are cleaned and also cut into half rings;
  • cover the baking sheet with parchment and distribute the pizza dough evenly on it;
  • the dough base is greased with ketchup or tomato paste;
  • line with a layer of mushrooms, peppers and tomatoes;
  • add olives, which are previously cut into halves;
  • The finished pizza is sprinkled with grated cheese and baked in the oven for 10–15 minutes at 180 degrees.

Salad with olives

Salad with olives

Required ingredients:

  • Feta cheese 100 grams;
  • olives 10 pieces;
  • 2 tomatoes;
  • cucumbers 2 pieces;
  • 1 can of canned corn;
  • salt, wine vinegar to taste;
  • olive oil for dressing;
  • greenery.

Cooking diagram:

  • olives are cut into 2 parts;
  • tomatoes are cut into quarters, and cucumbers into longitudinal strips;
  • all crushed ingredients are mixed with canned corn;
  • add diced Feta cheese;
  • sprinkle the salad with wine vinegar, add a little salt, add herbs and season with olive oil.

Stuffed olives

Required ingredients:

  • large-sized olives, which will be convenient to stuff 15 pieces;
  • mixture of Gorgonzola and cream cheeses 150 grams;
  • goat cheese 50 grams;
  • salt, spices (parsley, marjoram, thyme, garlic, pepper) to taste.

Cooking diagram:

  • cheeses are crushed and mixed with spices;
  • the resulting mixture is placed in a pastry bag or a corner of the bag for further stuffing of olives;
  • The finished dish is decorated with sprigs of greenery and served to the table.

Properties of canned olives

Nutritional value and composition | Vitamins | Minerals

How much does canned olives cost (average price for 1 jar)?

Moscow and Moscow region.

60 rub.

Canned olives are most often served not only as an independent snack, but also used in the preparation of all kinds of salads and other dishes. The process of preserving olives helps to preserve the consumer and taste characteristics of the fruit for quite a long time, as well as to rid them of natural bitterness. It seems that it won’t take much time to find canned olives on the shelves of domestic stores.

Due to the fact that olives are still unripe fruits with a bitter and not very pleasant taste, they are preserved. On an industrial scale, to get rid of this taste, olives are soaked for a long time and then preserved. At the same time, there are different types of canned olives - natural (with and without pits), as well as with various fillings.

Experts do not recommend buying canned olives with fillers, in particular with anchovy paste. The fact is that to make such pasta, the entire fish with its entrails is used, so over time the filling begins to deteriorate. That is why the manufacturer is forced to add very high concentrations of preservatives. Citric, lactic, ascorbic - as many as three acids per small jar. After tasting these canned olives, even the healthiest person can feel stomach pain.

The safest filling for canned olives is the pit. It is in the seed that olive oil, which is so beneficial for our body, is found. Therefore, if the fruits are preserved with the pit, this oil gradually goes into the tissues of the olives and saturates them.

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