Dressing soups, classification, distinctive features, technological factors that shape the quality of each group of dressing soups.

Soup is a cozy homemade dish. At the end of a hard day, it’s nice to come home from a cold street and eat a bowl of homemade soup for dinner. Culinary experts have calculated how many recipes for different soups there are in the world - 1,500. But every mother or grandmother has her own favorite dishes that she prepares best.

Housewives often prepare a large pot of borscht so that it will last for more than one dinner, and they ask the question: “How long can this dish be preserved?” They keep the food in the refrigerator for 2-3 days.

This is done for various reasons. For example, to save time. Some dishes, say sauerkraut cabbage soup, taste better the next day.

How long can you keep soup in the refrigerator?

How long to store soup in the refrigerator

If you look at the sanitary standards used in public catering establishments, the answer will surprise you.

First courses are perishable foods. Their shelf life is very short. Soups are expected to be eaten within three hours of preparation. In exceptional cases, after pre-cooling, you need to leave them at a temperature of 2-4 °C. no more than 18 hours. It is noted that if the requirements are violated, the dish may deteriorate.

But authors of cookbooks and experienced chefs believe that the shelf life of ready-made meals at home is longer.
It is important to consider that soup is a product that must be stored in the refrigerator. https://youtu.be/

What should you consider when storing soups?

Temperature inside the refrigerator

Soup is stored in the same way as any other perishable dish. The temperature should be constant and not change upward. Products should be kept at a temperature of 2-6 °C

Utensil material

Do not leave food in aluminum containers for a long time. If a dish is in contact with this alloy, harmful substances will enter the food.

It is not advisable to keep the product in stainless steel utensils. Such dishes contain nickel, which is harmful to health.

Keeping them in plastic containers is also unsafe, as plastic releases poison into the food.

It is better to keep food in enamel and glass pans or containers. The food does not come into contact with the container material, which means it is safe.

Manipulations with capacity

The pan must be covered with a lid.

There should be no ladle or spoon inside.

You cannot heat the entire container with the dish; you should set aside the required amount for heating. This must be done with a clean ladle.

If there is not enough food in the pan, it is wrong to pour it into a smaller container to save space in the refrigerator. When transferring food, to prevent spoilage, it should be boiled again, and this will affect its taste.

Question 1. Dressing soups. Rules for their preparation.

General rules for preparing seasoning soups

Gas stations

Soups are called, which at the end of cooking are necessarily seasoned with sautéed carrots, onions, and sometimes tomatoes and flour.

Technological process of cooking Dressing soupsThe influence of various stages of the technological process on the quality of seasoning soups
1. Preparation of products. 1.1. Vegetables are cut into appropriate shapes. 1.2. The grains are sorted and washed. 1.3. Pearl barley is boiled until half cooked and washed. 1.4. The legumes are sorted, washed, soaked and boiled until softened. 1.5. Pasta products are sorted and large ones are broken. 1.6. Roots, onions, tomatoes, flour are sautéed. 1.7. Pickled cucumbers are simmered, sauerkraut is stewed. 1.1. Giving a beautiful appearance. 1.2. Removal of foreign bodies. 1.3. Removing mucus. 1.4. To preserve the integrity of grains and speed up cooking. 1.5. To give a beautiful look. 1.6. Preservation of aromatic substances, giving fat a beautiful orange color, removing the smell of dampness. 1.7. To improve the taste, color, aroma of first courses.
2. The products are placed in the boiling broth in the order so that they are ready at the same time, and cook at a low boil.2. Reduce nutrient loss and improve appearance.
3. Prepared salted and fermented products are added after potatoes and other products of plant origin are cooked until half cooked.3. To improve the taste, because acids prevent the cooking of plant products.
4. 15-20 minutes before the end of cooking, add sautéed vegetables and tomatoes.4. To preserve aromatic substances.
5. 10-15 minutes before the end of cooking, add sauteed flour diluted with chilled broth into soups without potatoes.5. Flour is used as a thickener.
6. 5-10 minutes before the end of cooking, add salt and spices.6. Salt prevents vegetable products from boiling. To preserve the aroma of spices.
7. Let it brew for 15-20 minutes before releasing.

Rules for dispensing seasoning soups

Place 1-2 pieces of the main product (meat, poultry, fish) into a warmed deep plate; pour the finished soup (500 g, 400 g, 300 g, 250 g) (serving temperature 75°C); carefully place sour cream and chopped herbs on top. Serve on a small dinner plate (separately on a pie plate you can serve pies, cheesecakes, donuts, kulebyaki, kruznik, etc.).

Storage conditions and sales dates for seasoning soups

The serving temperature for hot soups must be at least 75°C. Long-term storage of soups worsens their taste, appearance and vitamin activity, i.e. reduces their competitiveness. Therefore, ready-made soups should be stored for no more than two hours. To avoid burning, boiling and overcooking, soups are stored on a steam table or in a water bath. Soups seasoned with lezon are stored at a temperature of 60-65°C. When preparing in bulk, soups should be served in small portions. A new batch of soup should not be mixed with leftovers from the previous one.

Question 2 Daily sample indicators.

Portioned dishes are selected in full; salads, first and third courses, side dishes - at least 100 g.

The sample is taken from the boiler (from the distribution line) with sterile (or boiled) spoons into labeled sterile (or boiled) glass containers with tightly closing glass or metal lids.

The selected samples are stored for at least 48 hours (not counting weekends and holidays) in a special refrigerator or in a specially designated place in the refrigerator at a temperature of +2 - +6 °C.

Question 3 Equipment for a fish workshop.

Design and equipment of a fish workshop

The fish workshop is intended for the primary processing of fish and the preparation of semi-finished products from it.

Equipment in the workshop is installed in the following sequence:

— containers for delivering fish from the food warehouse to the dining room;

— baths for defrosting fish or briefly soaking salted fish;

— a table for processing fish with a mechanical fish cleaner;

— bath for washing fish;

— a production table for portioning fish with tabletop dial scales;

— a mobile bath for delivering fish to the hot shop;

- refrigerated cabinet;

— containers for waste collection;

— a bath for soaking portioned pieces of salted fish.

- a box for salt and flour.

When equipping a bath for soaking salted fish, a pipe with holes is placed at its bottom, which is connected to the water supply through a pipe and valve. The valve must have a valve that prevents the reverse flow of water. A perforated metal liner with holes is placed on top of the pipe, on which pieces of fish are placed. Water flows from the water supply through the connecting pipe into the pipe, and then through small holes under pressure to the bottom of the bath, gradually filling it. Through the overflow hole, the water is drained into the sewer system. By regulating the supply and drainage of water, the process of soaking the fish is accelerated.

The following stands are displayed in the workshop:

— fish processing in the canteen of a military unit;

— deciphering the labeling of cans of canned fish;

— table of average waste rates during fish processing and product yields;

— sanitary requirements for processing food in the canteen of a military unit;

— instructions on the rules of operation of technological equipment installed in the workshop;

— signs defining the purpose of production tables and baths.

Ticket 23

Shelf life of soups at a temperature of 2-6 °C

Type of soupShelf life (in hours)Note
With meat broth72
With chicken broth48Chicken broth will spoil faster than broth made from other types of meat.
With fish broth48The taste will deteriorate a few hours after cooking. It's best to freeze the broth and make a fresh dish as needed.
Mushroom24Saving is not recommended.
Cheesy48After a while the taste will deteriorate.
Cream soups12Due to the presence of dairy products in them, they will spoil in a short time.
Vegetable24After a few hours, vegetables such as green beans will change color. This is not a sign of spoilage of the dish.
Okroshka, beetroot soup, botvinya72The thick part should be kept separate from the liquid. “Salad” - in a container that is tightly closed. Kvass, kefir or beet broth - in a bottle or closed jug. Combine before serving.
Dessert24If the dish contains milk or cream, the period is reduced by half.

Technology for preparing clear soups, assortment, conditions and terms of sale.

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Consist of broth and side dish (cooked separately), yield 300-400 g. By type of liquid base: meat, fish, poultry. Broths are obtained as a result of clarification and saturation of broths with extractive substances. Garnish: croutons, pies, kulebyaki, vegetables, meat, poultry, fish. Assortment: clear meat broth, chicken, fish. Technological diagram of meat broth: cooking broth from bones, straining, clarification with a pull (Draw: cutlet meat is passed through a meat grinder, poured with double the amount of water + salt and in the cold, set, adding beaten egg whites.) it is brought into the broth + baked onions + carrots bring to a boil and cook over low heat for 1-1.5 hours (soluble proteins coagulate and form a porous mass with the mixture, which absorbs suspended particles). The broth is saturated with glutin and extractive substances. Next, strain. Preparation of side dishes: bread toasts are cut and fried in toasters, croutons with cheese loaves are cut into slices, sprinkled with cheese, butter, baked in a frying pan. closet profiteroles - choux pastry is released from a pastry bag and baked, dumplings, boiled rice, side dishes of meat - when leaving, pieces are placed in broth, omelet, pancakes. Conditions and terms of sale: leave at t = 75 ° C, store on a steam table for no more than 1-2 hours, when leaving, put a side dish on a plate and pour broth, or pour broth into a broth cup, and put the side dish on a separate plate.

Technology for preparing pureed soups, assortment, conditions and terms of sale.

The basis of puree soups is a liquid white sauce based on broth made from meat, fish, poultry, and vegetable broths.

Puree soups are a homogeneous pureed mass with the consistency of thick cream. Thanks to this, puree soups have become most widespread in children's, dietary and medical nutrition.

Range. Puree soups are prepared from the following products:


- croup

- birds

- offal (liver)

- fish

Products intended for puree soups are boiled, stewed or poached until fully cooked, then pureed. To ensure that the particles of pureed food are evenly distributed throughout the entire mass and do not settle to the bottom of the dish, white sauce made from flour (sautéed with or without fat) and broth or decoction of vegetables is added to pureed soups (except for cereal soups).

To increase the nutritional value and improve the taste, soups, except for “bean puree soup,” are seasoned with butter and hot milk or an egg-milk mixture (leison). Instead of milk and butter, you can use cream to season creamy soups. The dressing is added to the finished puree soups, after which they are not boiled.

Basic technological techniques for preparing puree soups.

To obtain a soup with a homogeneous consistency, the products included in its composition must be brought to readiness and chopped.

Various methods of thermal culinary processing are used - boiling, poaching, frying, depending on the taste characteristics of the finished product. Before the end of the heat treatment, add sautéed onions and roots to the main product and bring them until softened. Cooked products are turned into a puree. To do this, they are passed through a rubbing machine or MIVP. Poultry, game, and liver are ground using a meat grinder and then passed through a grinding machine (blender).

To prepare a liquid soup base, flour sauteed without fat is diluted with hot broth or broth, in which the main product is cooked until cooked, and boiled. As a result of starch gelatinization, a viscous liquid soup base is formed. It is filtered and used to dilute crushed products. In this case, a stable suspension is formed, and particles of the pureed mass do not settle to the bottom when the soup is subsequently stored on the steam table.

After combining the liquid soup base with the crushed product, the semi-finished soup product is thoroughly mixed until a homogeneous mass is formed and must be brought to a boil.

To improve the taste and consistency, boiled puree soups are seasoned with hot milk or cream, butter or leison. Lezon is used to season soups without bringing them to a boil, since denaturation and coagulation of proteins may disrupt the uniform consistency of the soup.

Ready-made puree soups are stored until release in a water bath at a temperature of 80-85°C for no more than 1-1.5 hours.

All puree soups can be served separately with corn or wheat flakes (25 g per serving), or pies, or croutons (20 g per serving)..

Technological diagram for the production of red main sauce; physical and chemical processes and technological factors that shape quality; assortment of sauce derivatives.

Sauces add juiciness, special taste and aroma to dishes, often enrich the composition of dishes and increase their calorie content. They stimulate the appetite and promote better absorption of the main ingredients of the dish.

Red sauce is prepared with brown meat broth and wheat flour, fried to a light brown color (red saute), with the addition of tomato puree, onions, roots and spices. Wheat flour for red sauces is fried without fat. To prepare derivative sauces, onions, mushrooms, pickled cucumbers, wine, mustard and other products are added to the red main sauce, which give them a unique taste and determine their name.

Chopped onions, carrots, parsley are sautéed with fat, tomato puree is added and sautéing continues for another 10-15 minutes. The sifted wheat flour is sauteed at a temperature of 150-160 C, stirring occasionally, in a stovetop dish or on a baking sheet in an oven in a layer of no more than 4 cm until it acquires a light brown color. The flour sauté, cooled to 70-80 °C, is diluted with warm broth in a ratio of 1:4, stirred thoroughly and added to the boiling brown broth, then vegetables sautéed with tomato puree are added and cooked at low boil for 45-60 minutes. At the end of cooking, add salt, sugar, black peppercorns, and bay leaf. Strain the sauce, rub the boiled vegetables into it, and bring to a boil. Basic red sauce is used to prepare derivative sauces.

Red saute.

Heat treatment of flour can cause protein denaturation. This reduces the ability to bind moisture, swell and form gluten, which is undesirable for sauces.

Destruction (dextrinization) of starch with the formation of pyrodextrins reduces the ability of starch to swell.

The melanoid formation reaction leads to a change in color and the formation of new aromatic substances.

Passer-e vegetables. Carotene carotene dissolves in fat, which contributes to its better preservation and digestibility, and gives the fat a red color. Sauté onions to remove bitterness. Volume puree to remove raw odor, the coloring material turns into fat. The main red sauce can be stored for 72 hours.

Onion sauce with mustard. Red sauce with roots, tarragon, onions and mushrooms, sweet and sour.

Technology for preparing sauces with butter and vegetable oil; physical and chemical processes and technological factors that shape quality; assortment of sauce derivatives.

Egg-oil mixtures.

Drain butter is the main component of this group of sauces. To add flavor and stimulate the activity of the digestive glands, add lime to-tu.

Non-emulsified (Polish, rusk), emulsified (based on Dutch).

Vegetable oil is an important source of unsaturated fatty acids. When making cold sauces with vegetable oil, the biological value is not reduced, the oil emulsifies and is easily digestible.

Vegetable oil-based sauces - emulsion and dressings.

Emulsion sauces based on vegetable oil. Mayonnaise (deodorized vegetable oil, egg yolks, mustard, salt, sugar, vinegar.

Emulsifier - phosphatides of yolk, whites, mustard. Emulsion conditions: 16-18 degrees, intensive mixing. Storage conditions from -5 to +30 degrees, lack of light and oxygen. Assortment of products: with sour cream, with pickles, with herbs, with tomato, horseradish, jelly, with cream.

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Preserving soups in the freezer

You can store broths and soups in the freezer. After defrosting, the taste of soups changes for the worse, but only slightly. In household home refrigerators, where the freezer temperature is 18 °C, the shelf life of a frozen first course is 6 months. In order not to ask the question: “How long has it been here?”, you need to leave a date label on the package.

Convenient and practical when you have frozen broth “in reserve.” You can use it to prepare not only the first dish, but also a sauce and a side dish.

Dishes are frozen, well cooled, in small portion containers or glass jars. For freezing, you can use silicone muffin molds.

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