method for producing packaged chilled pork cuts (variants)

GOST 32606-2013




Supply requirements and quality control

Beef. Carcases and cuts. Requirements for supply and quality contrail

MKS 67.120.10

Date of introduction 2017-07-01


The goals, basic principles and basic procedure for carrying out work on interstate standardization are established by GOST 1.0-2015 “Interstate standardization system. Basic provisions" and GOST 1.2-2015 "Interstate standardization system. Interstate standards, rules and recommendations for interstate standardization. Rules for the development, adoption, updating and about the Kazakhstan Institute of Standardization and Certification" and the Interstate Technical Committee MTK 534 "Ensuring the safety of agricultural products and food raw materials based on the principles of HACCP" based on the translation into Russian of the English version of the European standard specified in paragraph 5

2 INTRODUCED by the Committee for Technical Regulation and Metrology of the Ministry of Industry and New Technologies of the Republic of Kazakhstan

3 ADOPTED by the Interstate Council for Standardization, Metrology and Certification (protocol dated November 14, 2013 N 44-2013) The following voted for adoption:

Short name of the country according to MK (ISO 3166) 004-97 Country code according to MK (ISO 3166) 004-97 Abbreviated name of the national standardization body
Armenia A.M. Ministry of Economy of the Republic of Armenia
Kazakhstan KZ Gosstandart of the Republic of Kazakhstan
Kyrgyzstan KG Kyrgyzstandard
Moldova M.D. Moldova-Standard
Russia RU Rosstandart
Tajikistan T.J. Tajikstandard
Uzbekistan UZ Uzstandard

4 By Order of the Federal Agency for Technical Regulation and Metrology dated May 27, 2020 N 430-st, the interstate standard GOST 32606-2013 was put into effect as a national standard of the Russian Federation on July 1, 2020.

5 This standard is identical to the European standard ECE/TRADE/326:2004* “Bovine meat - carcases and cuts”. ________________ * Access to international and foreign documents mentioned here and further in the text can be obtained by following the link to the website

. — Note from the database manufacturer. The European standard ECE/TRADE/326:2004 was prepared by the UN Economic Commission for Europe Working Group on Perishable Food Standards and Quality Improvement. The name of this standard has been changed relative to the name of the European standard due to the peculiarities of the construction of the interstate standardization system

6 INTRODUCED FOR THE FIRST TIME Information about changes to this standard is published in the annual information index “National Standards”, and the text of changes and amendments is published in the monthly information index “National Standards”. In case of revision (replacement) or cancellation of this standard, the corresponding notice will be published in the monthly information index “National Standards”. Relevant information, notices and texts are also posted in the public information system - on the official website of the Federal Agency for Technical Regulation and Metrology on the Internet (



The purpose of this standard is to facilitate trade by providing guidance on the use of an international language between buyer and seller. This language is used to describe meat products traded internationally and provides a coding system for information transfer and electronic commerce. Codes for types of meat are given in table 1. Table 1

Type of meat Code (data field 1)
Cattle meat (beef) 10
Cattle meat (veal) 11
Pig meat (pork) 30
Sheep meat (lamb) 40
Goat meat 50
Llama meat 60
Alpaca meat 61
Chicken meat 70
Turkey meat 71

Meat, meat quality requirements

Merchandising of food products, food additives. Meat

- a valuable food product. This is a source of complete proteins, fats and other substances necessary for humans. The daily consumption rate in fried, boiled, stewed form is 80-100 g. For food, beef, pork, chicken, lamb are used, less often horse meat and venison are used.

Meat can be classified according to the type of slaughtered animal, age, fatness, and thermal state.

By type of slaughtered animals

a distinction is made between beef, lamb, goat meat, pork, horse meat, venison, rabbit meat, wild animals (elk, roe deer, bear), etc.


By age, cattle meat is divided into beef from adult cattle (cows, oxen, heifers over 3 years old, bulls), beef from first-calf cows, beef from young animals (bulls, heifers), veal (from 14 days to 3- x years). The meat of cows and oxen is bright red to dark red in color, with large deposits of subcutaneous fat ranging from white to yellowish. The muscles have a dense, delicate, fine-grained structure, with layers of fat (marbling). Young beef has pink-red muscles, fine-grained, white fat, dense, crumbly, marbling is weakly expressed. Veal has muscles from light pink to grayish-pink, a delicate consistency, subcutaneous fat is almost absent, internal fat is dense white or white-pink, the connective tissue is tender.

Lamb (sheep meat).

The meat of young animals is light red in color, the consistency is tender, the muscles are fine-grained, there is no marbling, the subcutaneous and internal fat is white, dense, crumbly. The meat of old animals is brick-red in color, rough, with a specific smell, refractory fat, white. The best meat is from young animals under one year of age.


Pork is divided by age into pork, gilt meat and dairy pig meat. Pork is obtained from animals with a slaughter weight of more than 34 kg. The color of the pork is from light pink to red, the muscles are tender, with marbling, the internal fat is white, the subcutaneous fat is pink. Gilt meat is obtained from young pigs with a slaughter weight of 12 to 38 kg. The meat is more tender than pork, the color is light. Meat from dairy pigs is obtained from animals with a slaughter weight of 3 to 6 kg. It has very delicate muscles, color from pale pink to almost white.

According to thermal state

meat is divided into:
cooled, chilled, frozen, frozen.
Cooled meat

— subjected to cooling to a temperature not exceeding 12° C, having a drying crust and elastic consistency.

Chilled meat

— subjected to cooling to a temperature of 0 to 4 ° C, having a drying crust that is denser than that of chilled meat and has an elastic consistency.

Frozen meat

- subjected to freezing and having a temperature in the thigh at a depth of 1 cm from -3 to -5 ° C, and in the thickness of the thigh muscles at a depth of 6 cm - from 0 to -2 ° C. During storage, the temperature throughout the half-carcass should be from - 2 to 3° C.


frozen to a temperature not exceeding 8°C, having a dense consistency and odorless.

Before use, frozen and frozen meat is thawed. It is recommended to defrost meat slowly at a temperature of 0 to 8 ° C, since the resulting meat juice will be more fully absorbed by muscle cells and there will be less loss of nutrients.

Meat is divided into categories based on fatness.

Fatness categories are determined by the development of muscle tissue, fat deposition, and the degree of bone protrusion.
Beef, lamb, and goat meat are divided into categories 1 and 11

Beef 1 category

has satisfactorily developed muscles;
the spinous processes of the vertebrae and the ischial tuberosities do not stand out sharply; subcutaneous fat covers the carcass from the eighth rib to the ischial tuberosities, significant gaps are allowed; The neck, shoulder blades, front ribs, hips, pelvic cavity and groin area have fat deposits in small areas. Beef of category II
has less satisfactorily developed muscles (the thighs have hollows); spinous processes of the vertebrae, subcutaneous fat is present in the form of small areas in the area of ​​the ischial tuberosities, lower back and last ribs.

Young beef 1

category, the muscles are well developed, the shoulder blades are without depressions, the hips are not tucked up, the spinous processes of the vertebrae, and the ischial tuberosities protrude slightly.
Carcass weight (in kg): from selected young animals - over 230; 1st class - over 195 to 230; 2nd class - over 168 to 195; 3rd class - 168 or less. Beef from young animals
of category II has satisfactorily developed muscles, the spinous processes of the vertebrae, and the ischial tuberosities protrude clearly.

Veal 1 category

(from dairy calves) has satisfactorily developed muscles, pink-milky color.
Fat deposits are present in the area of ​​the kidneys and pelvic cavity, on the ribs and in places on the hips; the spinous processes of the dorsal and lumbar vertebrae do not protrude. Veal of category II
(from calves that received additional feeding) has muscles that are less well developed, pink in color, and there are small deposits of fat in the area of ​​the kidneys and pelvic cavity. The spinous processes of the dorsal and lumbar vertebrae protrude slightly.

Pork is divided into five categories based on fatness.

Pork 1st category

(bacon) - muscle tissue is well developed, especially on the dorsal and hip parts. The fat is dense, white or with a pink tint, evenly distributed along the entire length of the half carcass, with a thickness of 1.5 to 3.5 cm. Carcass weight is from 53 to 72 kg.

Pork II category

(meat - young animals) - carcasses of meat pigs (young animals) weighing from 39 to 86 kg in the skin. The thickness of the backfat for all carcasses is from 1.5 to 4.0 cm. This category also includes carcasses of gilts weighing from 12 to 38 kg with skin and weighing from 10 to 33 kg without skin with a backfat thickness of 1.0 cm or more and pork edged

Pork III category

(fat) - pig carcasses with unlimited weight and a backfat thickness of 4.1 cm or more.

Pork IU category

(industrial processing) - pig carcasses weighing 90 kg without skin, weighing over 98 kg with skin. The thickness of the backfat in all carcasses is from 1.5 cm to 4.0 cm. Carcasses in the skin are produced with the hind legs.

Pork In category

(piglet meat) - carcasses of dairy piglets weighing from 3 to 6 kg. They should have white or slightly pinkish skin, without bruises or wounds; the spinous processes of the dorsal vertebrae and ribs do not protrude.

Each carcass, half carcass, and quarter must be marked with a mark certifying the quality and fatness of the meat. Beef, veal, lamb, goat meat of category I, pork of category 1 and U are branded with a purple round brand. Beef, veal, lamb of category 11, pork of category II are branded with a square brand, pork of category I is branded with an oval purple brand. Beef, lamb of category II (lean), pork of category I are branded with a red triangular brand. For beef from young animals and pork, the letter “M” is stamped to the right of the brand in the category; for beef from first-calf cows - stamp of the letter “P”; for veal - stamp the letter “T”; for beef from bulls - stamp the letter “B”; for goat meat - stamp the letter “K”; on carcasses, half-carcasses and quarters used for industrial processing - “P P”.

Numbers are stamped on the front and hind shanks of young cattle carcasses, respectively, by class: select - 0, first - 1, second - 2, third - 3. Stamps are placed on the shoulder, dorsal, lumbar, thigh and chest parts of beef half-carcasses of category 1 and category 11 one each for the scapular and femoral parts; one each on the shoulder blades, thigh parts and on the chest part on the right side of a lamb carcass of category 1 and category 11 - on both sides of the carcass on the shoulder and thigh parts. One mark is placed on the shoulder part of pork carcasses of all categories.

Meat quality requirements

In terms of quality, the meat of various types of slaughtered animals can be fresh, of questionable freshness, or stale.

The quality of meat is determined by organoleptic, microbiological, chemical and other methods.

Organoleptic method

The quality of meat is determined by the condition of the surface, color, consistency, smell, condition of fat, tendons, bone marrow, and the quality of the broth. Meat of questionable freshness or stale meat is not used for food.

Meat storage. Meat is stored in refrigerated chambers hanging chilled meat, frozen meat in stacks at a temperature of 0 to -5 ° C and a relative air humidity of 85-90% - 2-3 days. At a temperature of -12° C and a relative air humidity of 95 - 98%, frozen beef meat is stored for 8 months, lamb, goat meat - 6 months. Chilled meat is stored at a temperature of 0 to 2 ° C and a relative humidity of 85% for up to 3 days.

Characteristics of the quality of beef and pork meat








muscle tissue




Color and consistency





Merchandising of food products: Textbook. T.P.Lapina, Kovalevich T.I.

1 area of ​​use

This standard specifies terminology for raw (unprocessed) beef carcasses and cuts fit for human consumption and intended for export. The standard provides consumers with a choice of processing method, packaging, packaging of meat and confirmation of compliance. To supply beef carcasses and cuts, the requirements of regulatory documents for food products and veterinary control must be met. ________________ In the Russian Federation, the Technical Regulations of the Customs Union (TR CU) 034/2013 “On the safety of meat and meat products” are in force. This standard does not address aspects regulated in other documents; such provisions are referred in this standard to the scope of national or international legal norms or requirements of the importing country.

Preparing for freezing

Preparing meat for freezing begins with cutting it. A large piece is divided into pieces of the size needed to prepare one dish. This is necessary so that large pieces of pork (beef) are not frozen multiple times. Repeated freezing will negatively affect the structure of the fibers, the composition of nutrients and vitamins. It will also negatively affect the quality of the product.

This product must be frozen and thawed according to certain rules.

You cannot store meat in the freezer open, without packaging, even with the “No frost” system. It will become weathered, darken, dry out and partially lose its taste. The pieces are wrapped in cling film, bags, or food paper.

Frozen meat should be stored in such a way that its packaging does not touch other products. There are bacteria that do not die even at sub-zero temperatures and move freely through adjacent packages. If there are vegetables and fruits next to the meat that will not be processed at high temperatures in the future, this is especially important.

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Frozen meat should not be washed before storing. This will keep it fresh longer. It is especially important that moisture does not get into semi-finished meat products.

Different types of meat or lard cannot be kept in the same bag. This applies to all meat products.

2 Minimum requirements

All meat and meat products must come from animals slaughtered in establishments that regularly operate in accordance with applicable food safety and food inspection regulations. ________________ At the buyer's request, meat products may be tested for the detection of metal particles. Carcasses/cuts must be: - whole, taking into account presentation; - no visible blood clots or bone debris; — free of visible foreign substances (e.g. dirt, wood and metal particles); ________________ At the buyer's request, meat products may be tested for the detection of metal particles. - no unpleasant odor; - without extensive blood contamination; - no protruding or broken bones that are not clearly identified; - no bruises that have a physical impact on the product; - no traces of burns caused by freezing; ________________ Freeze burn is localized or widespread irreversible dehydration of a surface, indicated in whole or in part by changes in properties such as the original color (usually the color becomes paler) and/or consistency (the product becomes dry, spongy). - without spinal cord (except for whole carcasses). ________________ Removal of other high-risk tissues is carried out according to 3.5.6. Cutting, boning and trimming of carcasses and cuts is carried out with sufficient care to preserve the integrity and presentation of the cuts and avoid cuts to the muscle part of the meat. Fringes are removed from the surfaces of the meat. All cross cuts are made approximately at right angles to the surface of the hide, unless the cuts are to be cut along the natural seams. A cut may contain a minimal amount of meat, fat or bone from an adjacent cut. Boneless cuts remove all bone, cartilage and visible superficial lymph nodes.

Two-stage – shock – cooling

  • First stage

Half carcasses pass through refrigeration chambers.

For beef half carcasses: air temperature in the chambers from -3 to -5°C, relative humidity 85-90%, air speed 1-2 m/s, exposure time - 3-5 hours. For pork half carcasses: air temperature in the chambers from -6 to -12°C, relative humidity 85-90%, air speed 2-3 m/s, exposure time - 2 hours.

With such cooling in the chambers, the air temperature remains more or less constant, which makes it possible to reduce meat weight loss.

  • Second stage

Then the half-carcasses (beef and pork) are placed in other refrigeration chambers, in which: air temperature is from 0 to 2 ° C, relative humidity is 90-95%, air speed is 0.1-0.3 m/s for half a day.

The shrinkage rate in this case is 1.1 – 1.6% of the weight of fresh meat.

The exposure time for meat is significantly shorter; a transparent crust, permeable to oxygen, is formed on its surface, so meat cooled in this way has a good presentation, high stability and longer shelf life.

But with this method, “cold” muscle contraction is possible due to rapid cooling and sharp inhibition of biochemical processes in the meat, which causes the meat to become tough and irreversible. Therefore, the meat is first exposed to electric current or kept at an air temperature of -10°C -12°C for 12 hours.

3 Customer defined requirements

The following subsections set out the requirements that may be specified by the consumer, together with their meanings for the codes used within the beef coding system (see section 4).

3.1 Additional requirements

Additional customer-specified requirements that either do not have the intended code meaning (for example, code 9 uses “other”) or add further clarification to the product or packaging description must be agreed upon between the customer and the retailer and documented.

3.2 View

For beef, data field 1 uses code 10 according to Table 1.

3.3 Product/cut

A four-digit product code included in data field 2 (see section 5).

3.4 Cooling and freezing

Meat can be supplied chilled, frozen or deep-frozen. Depending on the freezing method used, the permissible weight of the product is agreed upon between the consumer and the seller. ________________ In the Russian Federation in accordance with the Technical Regulations of the Customs Union (TR CU) 034/2013 “On the safety of meat and meat products”. The ambient temperature throughout the supply chain must be such as to ensure a uniform core temperature of the product (see Table 2). table 2

Cooling degree code (data field 4) Category Description
0 Not specified
1 Cooled The temperature inside the product is not lower than minus 1.5°C and not higher than plus 7°C during the entire time after cooling
2 Frozen The temperature inside the product does not exceed minus 12°C during the entire time after freezing
3 Deep frozen The temperature inside the product does not exceed minus 18°C ​​during the entire time after freezing
4-8 Codes are not used
9 Others

3.5 Origin of products

3.5.1 Traceability

Traceability systems are needed to determine the origin and production of products according to consumer requirements. Traceability must use a verifiable method to identify cattle, carcasses, cartons and cuts at all stages of production. If a product traceability procedure is used, it must be approved by the conformity assessment body as specified in 5.10.

3.5.2 Beef category

Beef categories are shown in Table 3. Table 3

Beef category code (data field 5) Category Description
0 Not specified Category not specified
1 Uncastrated male Presence of gender characteristics, age - over 24 months
2 Young uncastrated male Age - less than 24 months
3 Castrato bull Young castrated male
4 Heifer Heifer
5 Castrated bull and/or heifer Young castrated male or heifer
6 Cow Adult cow
7 Young animal 6-12 months
8 Code not used
9 Other categories

3.5.3 Growing system

The consumer can determine the growing system. In any case, cultivation must comply with the current regulations of the importing country. In the absence of such provisions, the rules of the exporting country apply. Growing system codes are shown in Table 4. Table 4

Growing system code (data field 6) Category Description
0 Not specified System not specified
1 Mainly indoors Growing method - indoors
2 Limited grazing Cultivation methods including limited grazing
3 Pasture grazing Cultivation methods including free grazing
4 Organic Growing methods that comply with the legislation of the importing country regarding organic growing
5-8 Codes are not used
9 Others Can be used to describe any growing system agreed between consumer and seller

3.5.4 Feeding systems

The consumer can specify the feeding system (see Table 5). In any case, feeding must comply with the current regulations of the importing country. In the absence of such standards, the feeding system must be agreed upon between the consumer and the seller. Table 5

Feeding system code (data field 7a) Category Description
0 Not specified
1 Grain feeding Grain is the predominant component of the feed regime
2 Fattening with forage Forage is the predominant component of the feeding regimen with some grain supplementation
3 Feeding exclusively with forage Forage is the only component of the feeding regime
4-8 Codes are not used
9 Others May be used to describe any other feeding systems agreed between buyer and seller

3.5.5 Method of slaughter

Codes for slaughter methods are given in Table 6. Table 6

Slaughter method code (data field 8) Category Description
0 Not specified
1 Traditional Stunning before bleeding animals
2 Kosher Appropriate ritual slaughter procedures must be ensured
3 Halal Appropriate ritual slaughter procedures must be ensured
4-8 Codes are not used
9 Others Any other method of slaughter must be agreed between the seller and the consumer

3.5.6 Post-mortem technology

Post-mortem processing technology codes are described in Table 7. Table 7

Post-mortem technology code (data field 9) Category Description
0 Not specified
1 Specified specifically The post-slaughter treatment system for livestock is specifically determined by agreement between the consumer and the seller
2-9 Codes are not used


1 Removal of high-risk tissue: Individual market requirements may have specific provisions governing the removal of spinal cord, nerve, lymphatic or other tissue. The regulations regarding spinal cord removal determine at what stage the spinal cord must be removed from the carcass and/or cut. If necessary, the spinal cord must be completely removed.

2 The following list describes some generally accepted post-mortem handling practices that may be agreed upon between consumer and retailer. These requirements are not included in the beef coding system: - skinning; — electrical stimulation; — method of hanging carcasses; - ligation of the esophagus; — cooling modes; - maturation process.

3.6 Provisions for restrictions and evaluation of fat thickness in certain cuts

3.6.1 Definition of codes

The consumer can specify the maximum thickness of fat for carcasses, sides and cuts. For fat, the following restrictions are allowed in accordance with Table 8. Table 8

Fat thickness code (data field 10) Category
0 Not specified
1 Cleaned, bare cuts with the surface film removed
2 Trimmed, bare cuts
3 Virtually no fat (75% lean meat with subcutaneous fat removed)
4 Maximum fat thickness 3 mm or as specified by the consumer
5 Maximum fat thickness 6 mm or as specified by the consumer
6 Maximum fat thickness 13 mm or as specified by the consumer
7 Maximum thickness of fat 25 mm or as specified by the consumer
8 The chemical composition of muscle tissue has been determined
9 Other categories

3.6.2 Trimming and assessing fat thickness

Trimming the outer fat is done by carefully separating the muscle underneath the fat along the contour of the surface. When it is necessary to completely clean the external surfaces, one oblique trimming of the fatty edge is not enough. According to consumer instructions, fat thickness requirements may apply to surface fat (subcutaneous and/or external fat depending on the type of product) and intermuscular fat (marbling). To describe fat trim limits, two definitions are used: - the maximum thickness of fat at any one point. Assessed by visually identifying the area of ​​the cut that has the greatest thickness of fat and measuring the thickness of the fat at that point; - average thickness of fat. Assessed by visually identifying and taking multiple measurements of fat thickness only in areas where superficial fat is clearly present. Average fat thickness is determined by calculating the average thickness in these areas. Actual measurements of fat thickness (depth) are taken at the edges of cuts by probing or scoring the surface fat in such a way as to establish the actual thickness and to take into account any natural depression and any seam that may affect the accuracy of the measurement. When a muscle has a natural groove, only the fat located above the part of the groove that is greater than 19 mm or 3/4 inch in width, called the bridge, is counted (see Figure 1). When there is a layer of fat between adjacent muscles, only the fat that extends above the level of these muscles is measured and is called the alignment. However, in cases where fat limits are specified for trimmed/denied cuts or trimmed/dark skinned cuts, the bridging method is used to estimate the amount of fat overlying the natural cavity and the fat between adjacent muscles. ________________ Trimmed/Naked Cuts: The term “trimmed” refers to the separation of surface fat and muscle along the natural seams so that the marbling of the cut (“silver film” or “bluish tissue”) is exposed and the remaining “flaky” fat does not exceed 2 .5 cm (1.0 in) along the line of the longest cut and/or 3 mm (0.125 in) in depth at any point. The term "naked" refers to the removal of all surface fat so that the marbling of the cut ("silver film" or "bluish tissue") is exposed and the remaining "flaky" fat does not exceed 2.5 cm (1.0 in) along the line any cut and/or 3 mm (0.125 in) in depth at any point. Trimmed/naked cuts with skin removed: The skin (“silver skin” or “bluish tissue”) must be removed (skimmed) so that at least 90% of the cut surface is lean and no remaining “flaky” fat is present. exceeded 3 mm (0.125 in) in depth.

Picture 1

3.7 Beef grading system

The coding system allows consumers to specify the beef grading system (see Table 9). Table 9

Beef grading system code (data field 11) Category Description
0 Not specified
1 Specified specifically Further information on individual country classification systems can be obtained by contacting the relevant standards body

3.8 Color and pH value of meat

Typically, depending on the type, meat has a characteristic color and pH value. Specific color and pH requirements, where appropriate, must be agreed between the consumer and the retailer and are not covered by the coding system.

3.9 Range of weight changes for carcasses and cuts

Weight range codes are shown in Table 10. Table 10

Weight range code (data field 12) Category Description
0 Not specified
1 Indicated A specific weight range must be specified
2-9 Codes are not used

3.10 Packaging, storage and transportation

________________ In the Russian Federation in accordance with the Technical Regulations of the Customs Union TR CU 005/2011 and TR CU 034/2013.

3.10.1 Description and provisions

Pre-packing (or pre-packaging) is the primary packaging of a product using quality food grade materials. Secondary (outer) packaging contains packaged products that have undergone primary packaging. During storage and transportation, meat must be packaged in accordance with the following minimum requirements:

a) carcasses and quarters: - chilled, in packaging or without it; — frozen/deep-frozen in packaging used to protect the products;

b) chilled cuts: - individually packaged; — packed in bulk (in plastic or waxed cardboard containers); — vacuum packed; — packaged in a modified atmosphere; — packaged in other ways;

c) frozen/deep-frozen cuts: - individually packaged; — packed in bulk (in plastic or waxed cardboard containers); — vacuum packed; - packed in other ways. Pre-shipment storage conditions and equipment used for transport must be appropriate to the physical and in particular the thermal state of the meat (i.e. chilled, modified atmosphere chilled, frozen or deep-frozen) and meet the requirements of the importing country. It is necessary to pay attention to the provisions of the Agreement on the International Transport of Perishable Food Products and on Special Vehicles Designed for These Transports (ATP).

3.10.2 Definition of codes

Beef packaging codes are described in Table 11. Table 11

Packaging code (data field 13) Categories
0 Not specified
1 Carcasses, half-carcasses and quarters without packaging
2 Packaged carcasses, half-carcasses and quarters
3 Cuts, individually packaged
4 Cuts packaged in bulk (in plastic or waxed cardboard containers)
5 Vacuum packed cuts
6 Cuts packed in modified atmosphere
7-8 Codes are not used
9 Others

3.11 Information on commercial units of meat products or on labels attached to them

________________ In the Russian Federation in accordance with the Technical Regulations of the Customs Union TR CU 022/2011 and TR CU 034/2013.

3.11.1 Mandatory information

To comply with the national requirements of the importing country, Table 12 contains information that must appear on product labels (marked with an “X”) for unpackaged carcasses, quarters and cuts, and for prepackaged or packaged meat products. Table 12

Information Bulk carcasses, cuts and quarters Prepackaged or packaged meat
Sanitary mark X X
Slaughterhouse number or batch number X X
Date of slaughter X
Packing date X
Product name X
Information on shelf life according to the requirements of each country X
Storage method: refrigerated, frozen, deep-frozen
Storage conditions X
Packager or Retailer Details X*
Quantity (number of units) X*
Net weight X*
* This information may also be indicated in the accompanying documentation.

3.11.2 Other product information

Additional information about products may be indicated in the labeling in accordance with the requirements of the legislation of the importing country, or at the request of the consumer, or at the decision of the meat processing operator. If specified, such product information must be verifiable (see also 3.5.1). Examples of such information about products include the following information: - country of birth; — country(ies) of cultivation; - country of slaughter; — country(ies) of processing/cutting; — country(ies) of packaging; — country of origin (in this standard, the term “country of origin” is used to indicate that the animal was born, raised, slaughtered, processed/butchered and packaged in the same country); — growing and processing systems; — characteristics of the breed, rearing and fattening systems; — slaughter procedures; — date of processing/packaging; — quality/grade/classification; - pH, color of meat and fat.

3.12 Provisions for conformity assessment

The consumer may request a third party to confirm the conformity of the product according to consumer-defined standards and/or animal identification. Individual confirmations of conformity or combinations thereof can be selected as follows: - confirmation of conformity of quality/category/classification (quality): a third party inspects the product and certifies that it meets the required level of quality. The issues of who will act as the third party authority for conformity assessment, as well as the quality standard to be used, should be determined in 3.1; - certification of conformity with a trade standard (trade standard): a third party examines the product and certifies that it meets the consumer specified requirements as specified in this trade standard, except for the level of quality. The name of the conformity assessment body acting as a third party must be determined in accordance with 3.1. At his discretion, the consumer may indicate specific requirements that he determines, which must be listed after the name of the conformity assessment body acting as a third party; — confirmation of conformity of cattle or lot identification (animal/lot identification): a third party certifies that the product meets the specified requirements. The name of the conformity assessment body acting as a third party and the requirements for conformity assessment shall be determined in accordance with 3.1. Conformity confirmation codes are shown in Table 13. Table 13

Conformity confirmation code (data field 14) Category
0 Not specified
1 Confirmation of compliance with quality/grade/classification requirements (quality)
2 Confirmation of compliance with the requirements of the trading standard
3 Confirmation of compliance with animal/batch identification requirements
4 Confirmation of compliance with quality and trading standard requirements
5 Confirmation of compliance with quality requirements and animal/batch identification
6 Confirmation of compliance with trade standard and animal/batch identification requirements
7 Confirmation of compliance with quality, trade standard and animal/batch identification requirements
8 Code not used
9 Others

Storing meat, offal and poultry

Category: Meat and meat products

Cooling and storing meat, offal and poultry in a refrigerated state is the most advanced method of preserving them.

Cooling significantly delays enzymatic and microbiological processes in meat and offal. During the period of mass slaughter of livestock, in addition to chilled meat, cooled meat is also supplied to trade. However, cooled meat in the rigor mortis stage is less suitable for cooking than chilled meat.

Meat on refrigerators

cooled in special chambers at a temperature of about 0 ° C; lower initial temperatures are also used for stepwise cooling. However, very rapid cooling leads to “cold” muscle contraction and irreversible changes, with muscle tissue acquiring a hard consistency. The reason for the “cold” contraction is the inhibition of biochemical processes at a temperature of about 10 °C. The quality of meat can be improved by electrical stimulation - the effect of electric current on steamed carcasses or parts of carcasses. Finish cooling at a temperature in the thickness of the meat from X) to 4 °C.

When the meat is cooled, the muscle tissue contracts somewhat and loses its elasticity, the surface becomes brighter due to the transition of myoglobin to oxymyoglobin; in addition, it happens

shrinkage of meat due to evaporation of moisture. Weight loss, depending on the cooling methods and type of meat, is allowed from 0.82 to 3.56%. Thus, for beef in half-carcasses and quarters of fatness category I, the shrinkage rate is no more than 1.60%, for category II - 1.75, for lean - 2.10%.

Properly chilled meat has a dry crust; The color of chilled beef is bright red, pork is pale pink, and lamb is dark red. Lamb and beef have a specific smell, pork is almost odorless. The consistency of all types of meat is elastic; the muscles do not release meat juice when pressed lightly. However, the quality of meat improves only after it is aged. The technological properties of meat and the quality of meat products prepared from this meat depend, other things being equal, on the duration and temperature of its storage. Technological properties mean the degree of suitability of meat for refrigeration, processing into meat products and culinary use. Meat used immediately after the slaughter of an animal is considered less suitable for culinary processing. Unripened meat after heat treatment is tough, the broth from it is not very concentrated. When aging carcasses, the meat matures, which helps improve its quality, both as a semi-finished product for cooking and as a raw material for the production of meat products.

Meat ripening -

a process that is caused by enzymes, as a result of which the meat softens and substances are formed in it that improve the taste and smell of the finished product. Maturation is caused by numerous biochemical and colloidal changes in the meat of slaughtered animals.

During the life of an animal, meat compounds are in a state of decay, but balanced by their synthesis. After the slaughter of an animal, the nature and direction of these processes change due to the cessation of the supply of oxygen and nutrients dissolved in the blood to the cells. Synthesis fades and autolysis begins to dominate. The general direction of autolysis is the simplification of complex compounds and the accumulation of a number of under-oxidized products.

The entire complex of post-mortem changes can be divided into three periods. The first period lasts about 3 hours - before the onset of rigor mortis and ends after 1-2 days of carcass storage; The muscles are in a state of increasing rigor. The third period is characterized by the destruction of rigor and subsequent softening of the meat.

In the first period, muscle tissue is soft and elastic. The pH value of meat is close to neutral. Meat contains a significant amount of glycogen, creatine phosphate and ATP. Individual proteins are extracted with water or saline solutions from muscle tissue, significant digestibility of collagen and a high content of bound water are observed. Nucleotide breakdown products are contained in minimal quantities.

Meat in the steamed state is quite suitable for making boiled sausages and freezing.

The second period is characterized by the development of rigor mortis. Muscles lose elasticity, thicken and harden. The intensity of rigor rigor depends on the temperature, species, age, fatness and condition of the animal before slaughter. The rigidity of meat and its resistance to cutting force increase approximately 2 times. The content of bound water and the ability of meat to hydrate decrease, and its resistance to the action of proteolytic enzymes increases. The process of rigor mortis is the result of numerous changes in meat systems. During this period, anaerobic breakdown of glycogen occurs with the formation of lactic acid, reducing polysaccharides and glucose. The storage stability of meat, its water-holding capacity and the activity of tissue enzymes depend on the level of lactic acid accumulation. The increase in rigor mortis is due to the formation of the actomyosin complex as ATP levels decrease. Decreased protein hydration affects meat toughness as the pH of muscle tissue approaches the isoelectric pH of the underlying proteins. The greatest hardness of meat is observed at pH = 5.5. By moving the pH to either side of the isoelectric point of proteins, the tenderness of the meat increases. A pH shift leads to wedging of the polypeptide chains of individual proteins, an increase in hydrophilic centers and, accordingly, an increase in the moisture absorption capacity of meat.

The third period is characterized by softening of meat due to the breakdown of actomyosin in the presence of easily hydrolyzed phosphorus. Autolytic processes continue due to the action of proteolytic enzymes. Accumulation of free amino acids, breakdown of nucleotides, dissolution of mucopolysaccharides, and increased digestibility of collagen are observed. At the same time, the taste properties of meat and broth are improved. Aromatic and flavoring substances, as a rule, are of a low-molecular nature. These substances include a very large group of carbonyl compounds and sulfur-containing substances. Among them are amino acids, low molecular weight fatty acids, aldehydes, phenols, alcohols, esters, and from nucleotides - adenyl, guanyl, cytidylic, inosinic and uridylic acids. Nitrogen-containing extractive substances include creatine, creatinine, anserine, carnosine, carnitine.

When different muscles or their parts are cooked by heat, the resulting taste and aroma are not the same in intensity. Soft muscles, which work little during the life of the animal, produce a broth that is not tasty and aromatic enough compared to tougher meat.

Beef ripening ends at a temperature of 0-4 °C after 10-12 days of aging meat carcasses. The ripening period for other types of meat is shorter, and for meat of different types of poultry it is limited - 1-6 days.

Maturing meat is a long process, and a number of methods are used to speed it up. Physical and biochemical methods have been developed using enzymes of plant, animal and microbial origin.

Physical methods - electrical stimulation, exposure to elevated temperature with simultaneous UV irradiation. In the meat industry, in the production of smoked meats, various deforming effects are used - massaging or tumbling cuts of meat. A method for treating meat with ultrasound has been proposed, under the influence of which cells are destroyed and lysosomal enzymes are released.

Biochemical methods include methods based on the action of proteolytic enzymes of plant and microbial origin. The following enzymes are used in the meat industry: papain, contained in the leaves of the melon tree; ficin - in fig leaves; bromelain - in pineapple leaves. The optimal activity of these enzymes occurs at a temperature of about 50 °C.

The source of enzymes of microbial origin are bacteria, actinomycetes, yeast and mold. There are more than 40 types of enzyme preparations made on the basis of these enzymes. The use of the drug terrizin, isolated from the microbe terricol, is allowed. To soften meat, 15 g of this drug per 1 ton of meat is enough.

Physiological methods for accelerating maturation involve administering active drugs to animals 2-3 hours before slaughter. Adrenaline, pyrocatechin and a number of other physiologically active compounds, collectively called “demotins,” are used as such drugs. These drugs accelerate the breakdown of glycogen, reduce lactic acid levels, inhibit the breakdown of ATP and prevent the formation of the actomyosin complex.

The use of various methods to accelerate ripening makes it possible to use almost all tough meat for the preparation of portioned semi-finished products with a fairly acceptable consistency.

Chilled meat is sent mainly to retail trade, and is also used in the production of individual sausages and minced semi-finished products.

During storage

chilled meat must be kept at a constant temperature. Fluctuations in ambient temperature lead to deterioration in quality, increased losses and a significant reduction in the storage time of meat due to moisture condensation on its surface. Even a small change in air temperature at high relative humidity is enough to reach the dew point and moisten the surface of the meat. To reduce losses due to moisture evaporation, reduce air circulation. However, low circulation leads to stagnation of air, mucus and molding of meat, so they create an intensity of circulation that helps slow down the development of microbes.

It is recommended to store chilled meat in refrigerators at a temperature of 0 to -1.5 ° C, a relative air humidity of 85-90% and air circulation. 0.2-0.3 m/s. Under these conditions

The storage duration, taking into account transportation time, is: beef - 10-16 days, pork and lamb - 7-14 days.

Frozen (supercooled) meat can be stored at a temperature of -2 °C ±0.5 °C for up to 17 days.

High-quality cuts in reusable containers are allowed to be stored at enterprises at temperatures from 0.5 to -1.5 ° C for no more than 7 days, and those packed in polymer film under vacuum - up to 15 days.

Loss of meat mass depends not only on temperature and humidity conditions, but also on the type of meat, its fatness and specific surface area.

To increase the shelf life of chilled meat, which is relatively short, methods have been developed for storing it in a frozen state, in an atmosphere with the addition of carbon dioxide, using ultraviolet rays, antibiotics and penetrating radiation. However, they have not received widespread industrial use.

Since the shelf life of chilled meat is limited, it is frozen. Long-term storage of frozen meat is possible at temperatures below -10 °C.

Freeze chilled or fresh meat. The production and storage of frozen meat is associated with additional costs for freezing and maintaining the necessary storage conditions. In addition, meat loss is inevitable during freezing and storage. Frozen meat is inferior in quality to chilled meat. During storage, the organoleptic characteristics and nutritional value of frozen meat deteriorate due to the partial loss of vitamins and changes in fat. However, freezing still remains the main method of preserving meat for long-term storage.

Meat is frozen in freezers and freezers mainly at temperatures from -18 to -25 °C, but lower temperatures are also used. When meat is frozen, the bulk of the water and tissue fluid turns into a crystalline state, so the muscle tissue becomes hard and the fat acquires a crumbly consistency. Microbiological processes in frozen meat stop, and enzymatic processes slow down sharply.

The quality of frozen meat and the reversibility of the freezing process are influenced by both the initial state of the meat—the depth of the ripening process—and the speed of freezing. Increasing the freezing speed has a positive effect on the quality of defrosted meat.


frozen meat tightly stacked in refrigeration chambers. During storage, weight loss occurs and the quality of meat changes. The surface of the muscle tissue gradually dehydrates and becomes porous. Recrystallization, associated with the growth of some crystals at the expense of others, leads to deformation and partial destruction of muscle fibers. Fat that changes color goes rancid and gives the meat an unpleasant taste. The state of proteins changes, the process of their aging occurs,

which leads to a decrease in the water-holding capacity of thawed meat. Fat-soluble vitamins are destroyed, except for vitamin A. Water-soluble vitamins are less susceptible to destruction, with the exception of vitamins contained in pulp by-products.

The shelf life of frozen meat depends on the temperature, type of meat and its fatness. At a temperature of -18 °C and a relative air humidity of 95-98%, beef can be stored for up to 12 months, lamb - up to 10, pork with skin - up to 8, without skin - up to 6 and offal - no more than 4 months. At a temperature of -25 °C, the shelf life of beef increases to 18 months, pork and lamb - to 12 months.

In order to better preserve frozen meat, it is necessary to minimize the evaporation of moisture from its surface. Meat shrinkage decreases with increasing relative humidity and decreasing air circulation. To reduce the shrinkage of frozen meat during long-term storage, use ice screens or cover the stack of meat with a cloth and freeze a layer of ice glaze on it. In the summer, as a result of increased heat transfer through the walls of the refrigerator chambers, shrinkage can increase significantly.

In stores and bases where the thermal regime changes, the shelf life of chilled and frozen meat is significantly reduced. The shelf life of chilled and frozen meat at temperatures from 0 to 6 °C is up to 3 days, and beef cuts in containers are no more than 48 hours. At a temperature of about 0 °C, frozen meat can be stored for up to 5 days. At a temperature not exceeding 8 °C, chilled and frozen meat is stored for no more than 2 days.

Packaged chilled meat at temperatures from 0 to 6 °C can be stored for no more than 36 hours.


cooled in special chambers on multi-tiered racks, which are transported along overhead tracks from the processing workshop. Lay out the offal on metal baking sheets in a 10 cm layer. Place the kidneys, heart, brains, and tongues in one row. Shrinkage of by-products during cooling reaches up to 1.63%. However, it is not recommended to store offal for a long time in a refrigerated state, since they spoil faster than meat.

Refrigerated offal products are stored at a temperature of about 0 °C for up to 3 days, from 0 to 6 °C for 36 hours, up to 8 °C for 12 hours. Frozen offal products are stored at the same temperature for up to 3 days, respectively. 48

and 24 hours

Poultry and rabbit carcasses

stored both refrigerated and frozen.

Chilled poultry is stored in stacked boxes or on racks. Shelf life at temperatures from 0 to 4 °C and relative humidity 80-85% is up to 4-5 days. When storing chilled poultry and rabbits, it is necessary to carefully monitor compliance with storage conditions and, if a slight foreign odor appears or a change in surface color, immediately sort the carcasses. The quality of poultry deteriorates during storage, and due to loss of moisture, their weight decreases.

Frozen poultry is stored in boxes stacked tightly. The permissible shelf life depends on storage conditions and the type of bird. The maximum shelf life at temperatures from -12 to -15 °C and 85-90% relative humidity for geese and ducks is 7 days, for chickens, turkeys and guinea fowl - 10 days; at a temperature of -25 °C and below - 12 and 14 months, respectively.

Frozen rabbit carcasses are stored at a temperature no higher than -9 ° C and a relative air humidity of 80-90% for no more than 6 months.

During storage, the appearance of the carcasses changes significantly: the skin becomes dry and brittle, and yellow stripes or spots appear in places where the carcasses touch. When stored for a long time, fat goes rancid and its color and taste change. The fat of geese and ducks deteriorates especially quickly.

In the store, the shelf life of poultry carcasses of all types at temperatures from 0 to 6 ° C is up to 3 days; at a temperature not higher than 8 ° C, chilled poultry is stored for 24 hours, and frozen poultry is stored for up to 2 days.

In distribution refrigerators and retail establishments, during the storage and movement of meat and offal, their natural loss occurs due to the evaporation of moisture and the leakage of tissue fluid. To account for these losses in trade, natural loss rates are used.

These standards are established depending on the shelf life, period of year, geographical area, packaging, type and thermal state of meat and offal.

At retail trade bases and warehouses, depending on the type of meat, shelf life and geographic area, natural loss is allowed from 0.03 to 0.5%.

In the chambers of distribution refrigerators, natural loss is allowed from 0.05 to 0.40%, depending on the type and fatness of meat, geographical area, time of year, capacity and number of floors of the chambers.

Chilled meat is stored in refrigerated chambers in a suspended state. Carcasses, half-carcases, and quarters should not come into contact with walls or each other; there should be free access of air to the meat.

Chilled meat is stored at a temperature of 0°C, relative humidity 80% for no more than three days.

Frozen meat is stored on pallets in stacks at a temperature of -3°C and a relative humidity of 80-90% for up to three days.

4 Coding system for consumer requirements for beef

4.1 Definition of the UNECE code

The UNECE code for consumer requirements for beef contains 15 fields and 20 characters (three characters are not used) and is a combination of the code values ​​presented in section 3 (see table 14). Appendix 2 contains a description of the MACPT-SEC system with an identifier for implementing codes. Table 14

N Name Range of values
1 View 00-99
2 Product/cut 0000-9999
3 Field not used 00-99
4 Refrigeration or freezing 0-9
5 Category 0-9
6 Growing system 0-9
7a Feeding system 0-9
7b Field not used 0-9
8 Method of slaughter 0-9
9 Post-mortem processing technology 0-9
10 Fat thickness 0-9
11 Beef Quality Grading System 0-9
12 Weight range 0-9
13 Package 0-9
14 Confirmation of compliance 0-9

4.2 Example

The coding example below describes a chilled and vacuum-packed beef leg with a maximum fat thickness of 3 mm from a castrated steer or heifer raised under an organic production system and slaughtered under a conventional slaughter method. Example - This product is assigned the following code: 10164300153201040050 (see Table 15).
Table 15

N Name Requirement Code meaning
1 View Beef 10
2 Product/cut Chelyshko 1643
3 Field not used 00
4 Cooling and freezing Cooled 1
5 Category Castrated bull or heifer 5
6 Growing system Organic 3
7A Feeding system Forage 2
7b Field not used 0
8 Method of slaughter Traditional 1
9 Post-mortem processing technology Not specified 0
10 Fat thickness Maximum fat thickness 3 mm 4
11 Beef Quality Grading System 0
12 Weight range 0
13 Package Vacuum packaging 5
14 Confirmation of compliance 0
( 1 rating, average 4 out of 5 )
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