Arkhipov V., Ivannikova T.V., Arkhipova A.V. Restaurant business: Assortment, technology and quality management in a modern restaurant; Tutorial. - M.: Firm "IYKOS", Center for Educational Literature, 200

Minced meat is minced meat or fish fillet (vegetables, mushrooms, root vegetables). It can be used for making meatballs, cutlets, pates, and also as a filling for baked goods. This product is used for home cooking quite often. They buy it a lot so that they can always quickly prepare meat dishes. But not everyone knows how to properly store minced meat at home, and what conditions are needed for this.


To obtain minced meat, boneless meat (fish fillet, etc.) is chopped with a knife or meat grinder, and then seasoned with a variety of spices. The types of this product are divided into:

  • minced meat (pork, beef, poultry);
  • fish;
  • from mushrooms;
  • from vegetables.

The most nutritious and tasty are meat types made from beef and pork.

Products consisting of a mixture of different types of meat are often sold, but chicken has a more affordable price, so it is purchased more often. You should know that the shelf life of chicken meat is slightly lower than that of pork and beef. This means that any chicken product will have a slightly shorter shelf life.

How to choose

To obtain high-quality minced meat that meets all standards, the meat used for its preparation must be well washed and dried with a paper towel. A drier final product has a longer shelf life and does not "spread". This is of great importance for the preparation of certain dishes.

  • It is best to store minced meat in the refrigerator. You should not mix products purchased at different times in the same container. And you only need to buy if you have a sticker with the release date and expiration date.
  • Minced meat purchased from unknown sellers may be stale or made without sanitary standards. Such a product may contain E. coli, which will lead to dire consequences for health.
  • High-quality minced meat should have a pink, red or dark red color. It depends on what kind of meat is used for cooking. A product with a gray (or pink and gray) tint indicates long-term storage before sale. And dark inclusions, veins and various fibers are indicators of poor quality.
  • Fresh product is not slippery. Its surface should be shiny and the color should be bright. A matte grayish appearance is an indication that the product is spoiled.
  • The liquid that separates in small quantities from high-quality minced meat should be colored light red. If there is no moisture at all, this may indicate the presence of bread or a large amount of tendons in the product.
  • If the liquid is dark in color, this is an indicator that the product is stale and should not be purchased.

Good minced meat should not contain salt. It does not have the best effect on its quality: after a while it will become hard and change its taste. Salt is often added to mask the smell and taste of non-fresh products.

Requirements for the sale of finished products

Prepared food must be delivered to consumers of good quality, with normal organoleptic properties , in the shortest possible time. To accomplish this task, a number of sanitary requirements must be observed. One of them is the rational organization of the work of the dispensing room. To eliminate the possibility of contamination and contamination of prepared food with microbes during distribution, all finished products for distribution are placed in special clean dishes (cauldrons, pans, food warmers, trays). It is more expedient to serve ready-made food from the workshop in the mobile cauldrons in which it was prepared, without transferring it to another container.

Before serving food, cooks are required to change sanitary clothing and thoroughly wash and disinfect their hands.

When serving food, you should use serving spoons, side dishes, measuring spoons, special spatulas, tongs, and forks so as not to touch the food with your hands. All distribution equipment must be made from materials approved by the State Sanitary and Epidemiological Supervision Service. Food should be poured and placed in clean tableware just before leaving.

In restaurants, decorated dishes are released from the shops and placed on serving tables covered with tablecloths, which keep the bottom of the plates clean.

At catering establishments with a constant contingent of consumers (industrial enterprises, educational institutions), the most rational, from a hygienic point of view, is considered to be catering according to a set lunch menu. The diets of such complexes are selected based on caloric content and balance of nutrients that meet the physiological needs of certain population groups. The set lunch menu is for 10 days or more. Their distribution is organized on mechanized distribution lines, some of the lines are formed by heated food storage units.

It is advisable to prepare culinary products in batches that can be sold within the time limits specified by sanitary rules.

The conditions and terms of storage of finished products in the dispensing room are important. To maintain the quality of the product, food is served in small quantities necessary for sale within 1 hour. The temperature of food served should be as follows: soups, hot drinks - 75 ° C, main hot courses and side dishes - 65 ° C, portioned dishes - 85 ... 90 °C, cold dishes, compotes, jelly - 7 ... 14 °C.

Particular attention is required to adhere to the deadlines for the sale of dishes, violation of which is the main cause of food poisoning. All hot dishes from the moment of preparation to distribution should be stored for no more than 3 hours, and vegetable ones - for 2 hours. If it is necessary to store hot food beyond the established period, it is cooled to 6 ° C and stored for no more than 12 hours. Before use, it is organoleptically determined quality and are subjected to secondary heat treatment: liquid dishes are boiled, the latter are heated to 90 ° C in an oven. The shelf life of food after repeated heat treatment is no more than 1 hour; it cannot be mixed with freshly prepared food.

Cold dishes are sold as quickly as possible to prevent the proliferation of microorganisms in them. Dressed salads and vinaigrettes must be sold within 1 hour, chopped herring - 24 hours, jelly - 12 hours, jellied fish - 24 hours, sandwiches - 1 hour. All these dishes during the holiday must be stored at a temperature of 2 to 6 °C.

The menu is not allowed to include dishes and side dishes of the same name for two days for the day shift and one day for the evening shift.

It is prohibited to leave for the next day: salads, vinaigrettes, pates, jellies, aspic and other perishable dishes; boiled meat in portions for first courses, pancakes with meat and cottage cheese, minced and cutlet-based meat, poultry and fish products; sauces; omelettes; mashed potatoes, boiled pasta; compotes, jelly and drinks of our own production.

The sale of confectionery products with cream in public catering establishments is possible only with the availability of refrigeration equipment and strict adherence to deadlines, storage temperature and time of year.

To prevent secondary contamination of prepared food with microbes, the sale of semi-finished products at catering establishments is organized separately from the distribution of dishes.

Having delivered semi-finished products from procurement enterprises to pre-production or culinary stores, they are poured into special labeled containers (metal, polymer), with tight-fitting lids, and packaging materials (cellophane, parchment, etc.) approved by the Ministry of Health for contact with food products.

Packaged minced meat and small-sized semi-finished products (goulash, beef stroganoff, azu, frying, etc.) are wrapped in film and placed in trays or other containers in one layer. Portioned semi-finished products are transported without wrapping, in closed containers.

In stores or culinary departments, conditions must be provided for separate storage and dispensing of semi-finished and ready-to-eat foods.

For home-delivered meals, special rooms are provided that are equipped with sinks with a supply of hot and cold water for rinsing customers’ dishes. Lunches should be served only in clean containers, not glass.

Canteen branches, distribution points, buffets selling finished products must be equipped with stoves for cooking food, food warmers for heating it, refrigerated cabinets, refrigerated counters, washing baths for tableware and equipment. Food is delivered to these enterprises in thermoses, pots and trays with tight-fitting lids, in which it is stored for no more than 2 ... 3 hours. For longer storage, food is again subjected to heat treatment before distribution. The sale of sauce dishes in buffets is allowed with the permission of the territorial center of the State Sanitary and Epidemiological Supervision for each specific enterprise.

The procedure for selling products of public catering establishments in specially designated places is determined by local executive authorities.

It is prohibited to sell particularly perishable culinary products from machines, trays, or hands, the list of which is approved by the territorial bodies of the State Sanitary and Epidemiological Supervision.

Refrigerated storage

Without a refrigerator, storing minced meat will be very short: no more than 1 - 2 hours. Therefore, you should remove this product from the refrigerator immediately before preparing the dish.

Before storing minced meat in the refrigerator, place it in dry, clean plastic containers and cover with cling film so that the product cannot weather or absorb foreign odors.

  • At +6°C -+8°C, the shelf life of minced meat is 12 hours. Then it must be used anyway, because it will soon start to give off an unpleasant odor.
  • How long to store minced meat in the refrigerator also depends on the quality of the raw materials (meat). But you should not leave this product in the refrigerator for more than a day.
  • It is better to mix several types of minced meat together before cooking. And different types of this product need to be stored separately, in different containers.
  • Minced meat, which is based not on meat, but on other products, is stored under the same conditions.

What does the expiration date on the packaging mean?

All food products are divided into three types depending on expiration dates:

  1. Particularly perishable products are products that cannot be stored without maintaining low temperatures (not higher than +6 °C). The shelf life of such products varies from 6 to 72 hours from the date of manufacture.
  2. Perishable - their storage temperature should also not exceed 6 ° C, but the period is longer: from 3 to 30 days.
  3. Non-perishable goods are food products that can be stored without low temperatures for more than a month. Here other storage conditions play a key role: humidity, exposure to direct sunlight, etc.

In order for perishable goods to withstand transportation and maintain their quality, they must be packaged in accordance with established requirements. Perishable goods are usually classified according to two criteria - by origin and the temperature conditions they require.

Federal Law No. 381-FZ dated December 28, 2009 (as amended on July 3, 2016) “On the fundamentals of state regulation of trade activities in the Russian Federation” (as amended and supplemented, entered into force on July 15, 2016) determines that food products include:

  • unprocessed, partially or fully processed foods;
  • baby food of all types;
  • dietary products;
  • bottled water;
  • soft drinks;
  • any alcohol, drinks made from beer;
  • nutritional supplements;
  • dietary supplements;
  • chewing gum.

Most stores do not refrigerate eggs, and depending on how long the eggs have been exposed to room temperature, this will affect the potential shelf life.

A good housewife always has a strategic supply of food in her refrigerator, from which in case of force majeure she can always prepare a dish, and more than one. It is clear that everyone has different incomes and everyone makes a list based on their material capabilities, but a certain set can be found in every home. As a rule, only the packaging and the manufacturer differ.

Perishable foods include fermented milk products, meat, fish, fruits, vegetables, eggs, dairy products, cheeses and others.

You cannot accept products from a supplier if you used a vehicle that was dirty inside for transportation, violated the storage temperature (sent chilled or frozen goods not in a refrigerator), forgot to attach quality certificates, or sent copies without certifying them.

Perishable foods include fermented milk products, meat, fish, fruits, vegetables, eggs, dairy products, cheeses and others.

Resolution of the Chief State Sanitary Doctor of the Russian Federation dated May 22, 2003 N 98 “On the implementation of Sanitary and Epidemiological Rules and Standards SanPiN” (together with “SanPiN 2.3.2. Food raw materials and food products "Hygienic requirements for shelf life and storage conditions of food products. Sanitary and epidemiological rules and regulations", approved.


It is permissible to store minced meat in the freezer if it is absolutely fresh. If it was previously kept in the refrigerator for some time, it can no longer be frozen.

At -12°C all types of minced meat are stored for about 1 month, and at -18°C – up to 3 months.

Shredded meat, previously divided into pieces of not too large size, placed in bags without air, is well stored. The bag is pressed so that there is no air left in the middle and the contents of the bag become flat. Then the bag is hermetically sealed. Freezing without air will help extend the shelf life somewhat and also save space in the freezer.

Mushroom and vegetable minced meats cannot be frozen: when defrosted, they become too moist and also lose vitamins and dense structure.

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Rejection of finished products at catering establishments

Braking is everyday control over the quality of food preparation; it can be departmental, administrative and personal. Departmental screening is carried out by a special commission. Members of the commission periodically evaluate the quality of food prepared at a particular enterprise. If violations are detected, an inspection report is drawn up. Administrative screening is carried out periodically during the working day by the production manager or his deputy, and cook-foremen. Rejection of finished products is carried out selectively at least twice during one shift. To determine the quality of the dishes, members of the commission may remove the dish from sale. The most important form of food quality control is quality control posts and distribution control. The posts are headed by chef-foremen who control the quality of the prepared dishes and their output. Before starting the grading, the commission members carefully familiarize themselves with the menu, technological and costing cards. First, determine the mass of finished products. The quality of dishes and finished culinary products is assessed by organoleptic indicators: taste, smell, appearance, color, consistency. Depending on these indicators, products receive ratings: “excellent”, “good”, “satisfactory”, “unsatisfactory”. Dishes (products) prepared in strict accordance with the recipe and approved technology receive an “excellent” rating. In appearance, taste, smell, color and consistency, they correspond to the indicators and requirements established for them. The “good” rating is given to dishes prepared in accordance with the recipe, with excellent taste, but having, for example, irregularities in the form of slicing, insufficiently browned crust, slightly colored fat in soups, and also insufficiently salted or over-salted, etc. The “satisfactory” rating is assigned to dishes and culinary products that are suitable for sale without processing, but have minor flaws. The “unsatisfactory” rating is assigned to dishes and culinary products that have significant deficiencies: the presence of foreign taste and smell; over-salted, overly sour, bitter, spicy, lost its shape, burnt, with signs of spoilage, undercooked, undercooked. These dishes are sent for revision or rejected, drawing up the appropriate act. An effective means of increasing responsibility for food quality is to grant the best chefs the right to personally reject food, i.e. delivery of finished products from the first presentation. In this case, the chefs of the V and VI categories themselves are controllers and guarantee the high quality of the dishes. This right is achieved through skill and conscientious work. Chefs who have received the right to personal marriage undergo re-certification every 3 years, which serves as confirmation of the right to personal marriage for a new term. Deprivation of this right may occur at the request of the quality commission. The commission records its comments regarding the quality of prepared dishes and culinary products in the rejection journals. The journal must be laced and sealed with a wax seal, and its pages must be numbered. The log is kept by the production manager.

Dishes and culinary products are sent at least two to three times a month to a sanitary food laboratory to examine the completeness of the original products in them, as well as their good quality.

Rules for dispensing and storing prepared meals at catering establishments

During distribution, it is necessary to ensure quick release of dishes, replenishment of the stock of finished products as they are sold, storage of products at optimal temperature conditions (heating, cooling). The distribution must have direct communication with the hot and cold shops. It should be equipped with a room for slicing bread, a service buffet, washing tableware, and a buffet. When the specified premises are located on one side of the distribution, the width of the latter must be at least 2 m, on two or more sides - at least 3 m. The front for dispensing dishes at the distribution should be 0.03 m for hot shops, and 0.01 for cold shops m for one seat in the hall. Cash register machines are placed at the distribution point with an interval between them of at least 50 cm. A display case with menu forms is installed above them. Dispensers are placed in such a way that they have convenient communication with other rooms - washing tableware, dinnerware, buffet, etc. The kitchen is separated from the distribution area by a line of sectional heating cabinets, which creates the distribution front. The cold shop is separated from the dispensing room by a line of sectional counters. It also includes an ice maker, from which waiters take ice as needed. Between the buffet and the distribution there is a counter 60 cm wide, 90 cm high, equipped with refrigeration equipment, shelving, and tables. Heating equipment is also installed in the coffee buffet. In some restaurants, waiters may take confectionery and other specialty items from the buffet. Waiters bring dishes from serving into the hall, mainly on trays or using carts. At lunchtime, the work place of the cook distributing first courses is organized as follows. The pan with the first dish is placed on the steam table. There should also be a pile of chopped herbs, onions, sour cream, portioned pieces of meat, poultry, fish (in hot broth). When serving custom-made first courses (directly from the stove), use the same slide.

Second courses are served directly from the stove. For the distributor, prepare a mound of chopped vegetables - beets, carrots, cucumbers. The table should have greens, onions, sour cream, lemon, pickled fruits, vegetables, canned food, etc. Distribution should function in such a way as to ensure that dishes are served fresh, at a certain weight and temperature. The temperature of first courses and hot drinks during vacation should be no lower than 75 °C, second courses - 65 °C, sauces - 75 °C, cold and sweet dishes - 7-14 °C, custom-made dishes - 80-90 °C. For storing ready-made dishes for distribution, certain periods are established, which are necessary not only to comply with sanitary requirements, but also to preserve taste. Meat jelly, meat aspic, fish jelly, fish aspic are sold only in the presence of refrigeration chambers (not higher than 6 °C) for no more than 12 hours; chopped herring in the presence of refrigeration chambers - 24 hours; vinaigrette, salads (vegetables, meat, fish) in the presence of refrigeration chambers and undressed - no more than 12 hours; fried and baked pies with meat, fish or offal (kulebyaki, pies) - no more than 24 hours in the absence of refrigeration chambers, at a temperature not exceeding 20 ° C - no more than 6 hours; sandwiches - no more than 3 hours. Cakes and pastries with whipped egg white cream or fruit finishing can be stored and sold within 72 hours, with butter cream - 36 hours, with cream cream or custard - 6 hours. The sales period for finished products is considered from the moment the technological process of its preparation is completed. The shelf life of hot vegetable dishes should be as short as possible, but no more than 1 hour at a temperature not lower than 75 °C. Storing prepared food beyond the established time limits is permitted only as an exception. In case of forced storage of leftover food, the following conditions must be observed. The remaining food must be cooled to a temperature no higher than 8 °C no later than 3 hours from the moment of its preparation. The shelf life of refrigerated food (at a temperature not exceeding 8°C) should not exceed 12 hours. Before distribution, food must be subjected to secondary heat treatment. The period for selling food after its secondary thermal cooking should not exceed 1 hour. Dispensing points, branches and buffets that dispense hot dishes are equipped with stoves for heating food and washing tableware. At distribution points, food is stored in thermoses for no more than 3 hours, and vegetable dishes for no more than 2 hours. After this period, the food must be subjected to heat treatment, while liquid dishes and sauces are boiled. Lunches are served at home in special rooms, only in clean dishes for visitors. It is prohibited to serve lunches in glass containers.

Test questions and assignments

1. List the requirements for storage facilities. What are the basic rules for storing food? 2. What are the requirements for organizing the food processing process in meat, fish, vegetable, cold, hot, and confectionery shops? 3. List the main types of kitchen utensils and the materials from which they are made. 4. Describe the operation of washing kitchen utensils.

5. How is the rejection of finished products organized?

6. What are the requirements for dishes when assessing their quality?

7. What are the basic rules for dispensing ready-made meals for distribution?

List the shelf life of cold appetizers, first, second and dessert courses for serving.

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Can minced meat be stored after defrosting?

Housewives often ask questions: how long can defrosted minced meat be stored and in what container? There is only one answer: such a product cannot be stored at all. As soon as the minced meat is defrosted, you should cook something from it, otherwise it will immediately spoil.

General storage table

Type Maximum shelf life at 4-6°C
Meat 12 hours
Fish 6 hours
Mushroom no more than a day
Vegetable no more than a day
Semi-finished meat products 12 hours
Shredded fish 6 hours
Chopped vegetables and mushrooms no more than a day
Shelf life of different types of minced meat in the freezer (-18°C)
Meat 3 months
Fish 3 months
Mushroom not stored
Vegetable not stored

Salads with dressing

How long you can store a salad with mayonnaise or sour cream depends not only on the ingredients, but also on the type of dressing. As a rule, the most common refills are:

  • mayonnaise;
  • sour cream;
  • vegetable oil;
  • various sauces.

The most short-lived dressing is sour cream. At room temperature it begins to sour within 30 minutes, and in the refrigerator it remains fresh for no more than 60 minutes.

SanPiN regulations completely prohibit dressing salad with sour cream in advance in catering establishments. It’s worth using this advice at home. To prevent the dish from acquiring a sour taste, it is better to open the sour cream immediately before the start of the feast.

The shelf life of mayonnaise is slightly longer than that of sour cream. Homemade mayonnaise will last for 2-3 hours, while a store-bought product with preservatives will remain fresh for 5-6 hours. If the dish sits in the refrigerator for a day, the mayonnaise will not spoil, but its taste will suffer.

Unrefined vegetable oil and sauces also do not last long when used as a dressing. Once they stand on the table for 30–60 minutes, they begin to deteriorate. The shelf life in the refrigerator is slightly longer.

If you don’t have time to prepare the salad immediately before serving, it is better to prepare the ingredients and put them in different containers. This will significantly increase the shelf life of Olivier salad or mimosa. Herring under a fur coat will also last longer if you prepare the dish from the prepared ingredients immediately before serving.

The presence of eggs, onions and mayonnaise does not allow “herring under a fur coat” to be stored for more than 48 hours

Of course, salads last 2-3 times longer in the refrigerator than on the kitchen table. If you need to preserve the dressed salad, it is not advisable to put it in an aluminum container. Aluminum reacts with food and speeds up its deterioration.

It is better to use glass or plastic dishes. In such containers in the summer, the dish will last in the refrigerator for 8–10 hours. Although it will not spoil even after 24 hours, during this time a large number of bacteria will develop on the food, which can cause indigestion in children or the elderly.

In winter, vegetable salads can be stored in the refrigerator for up to 18 hours; meat and fish can last the same amount of time.

To check the freshness of the salad, just use a spoon to move the ingredients to the side. If the bottom of the dish is dry, then the food is still fresh. But the presence of liquid at the bottom indicates that the food is starting to spoil. It is better not to serve such a dish on the table.

Some housewives use extreme methods of storing food, taking the finished dish out into the cold. This method will help preserve food for several days, but the taste will be lost. In addition, all the ingredients will freeze, and when thawed they will release liquid, ruining both the quality and appearance of the dish.

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