Basics of cooking. How to clean boletus

In this article we will tell novice mushroom pickers how to clean butter mushrooms. We’ll also show you how to do it without a knife.

Butterflies occupy one of the leading places among other mushrooms. For their pleasant smell, excellent taste and aesthetic appearance, these mushrooms are loved by many connoisseurs of “quiet hunting”. The mushrooms got their own name because they have a slippery and slimy film on the cap. Only boletus is equipped with natural protection - this is an oily skin. Thanks to this protection, the surface of the oil never dries out.

Why is the film removed from butterfish?

Butterflies are universal mushrooms, since you can use them to prepare absolutely any dish by adding vegetables, meat, cheese, and eggs to the mushrooms. Plus, butter beans make excellent preparations for the winter: you can dry them, pickle them, salt them, fry them, stew them, and even freeze them.

But when you bring boletus home, you should know how to properly process the mushrooms. The process of cleaning oils is quite complicated, especially if you clean them from the slimy film. In this case, you may have a question - why is it necessary to remove the film from oil? In order to understand why the film is removed from butter mushrooms, you should get acquainted with the characteristics of mushrooms and their structure.

The film needs to be removed from the oil

  • Any mushroom has its own structure, taste and benefits. Butternuts are considered excellent fruits, containing many vitamins and amino acids.
  • These mushrooms improve digestion, and the enzymes present in the mushrooms restore the body after many diseases.
  • But despite such important advantages, boletus mushrooms have one negative side - various debris, toxic components and radiation accumulate in the boletus caps.
  • Therefore, be sure to remove the film from the oils and the top layer from their caps, despite the fact that this process may seem troublesome and complicated during initial processing.


Butterflies are loved not only by people, but also by various insects and worms. If mushrooms are not collected on time, then 80% of the representatives of this species become damaged.

Eating these mushrooms is already dangerous; even if you cut out the damaged areas, it is almost impossible to get rid of the worm larvae. During their life, worms leave metabolic products in the tissues of the fungus, and these, in turn, contribute to the development of allergic reactions and intoxication.

Attention. You can reduce the likelihood of a spoiled butter dish getting into your dish by thoroughly cleaning the surface of the mushroom. The larvae are detected immediately at the stage of cleaning and cutting the butter.

Table No. 2. The main causes of oil poisoning:



Polluted environment.

Butterfly has the ability, like all other mushrooms, to absorb harmful environmental components like a sponge. Therefore, cutting them near plants, factories, power plants or highways is not recommended. The components contained may cause poisoning. This:
  • soot;
  • arsenic (see Arsenic poisoning - extremely dangerous);
  • lead;
  • strontium;
  • cesium.

There is one golden rule: when hunting for mushrooms, do not chase large sizes. It is believed that the larger the mushroom, the more harmful substances it may contain. Small representatives will be the safest for consumption.

Violation of processing rules.

Violation of the rules for processing boletus during canning can cause the development of clostridium bacteria in the jar, producing endospores and toxins. The action of these bacteria is aimed at paralyzing the muscular system.
Clostridia multiply when heat treatment rules are violated. Despite the opinion that when repeated boiling, all bacteria should be destroyed, nevertheless, their metabolic products remain. If they enter the body they cause severe poisoning.

Butternuts have an oily cap surface, which is a favorable environment for the growth of bacteria. Therefore, the issue of preserving this type of mushroom should be approached with great care and attention.

False boletus.In medical practice, situations of poisoning with false boletus often occur. These mushrooms are not deadly, but it is quite possible to get serious complications from them. But due to the fact that boletus mushrooms have distinctive features, it is very difficult to confuse them with inedible mushrooms. Just take a closer look at the spongy layer under the cap and the oily surface of the mushroom.

Trehalase deficiency (intolerance to mushroom protein by the digestive system).

Trehalase or tricalase deficiency means a deficiency of the enzyme trehalase.
In other words, this is intolerance to the digestive system; the pathological condition relates to a number of hereditary factors. Trehalase is an enzyme that breaks down trehalose found in mushrooms. But this substance can only be contained in young representatives; old mushrooms contain glucose instead of this component. Considering the fact that mushrooms are not included in the regular human diet, many may never know about this feature of the body.

Important. Any young mushrooms, including boletus, contain the component trehalose, which is broken down in the human body by the enzyme trehalase. Some people experience a deficiency or complete absence of it. Consequently, eating mushrooms becomes dangerous for them. This feature of the body can cause typical symptoms of poisoning - diarrhea, bloating. In this case, vomiting and nausea may not be observed.

How to properly sort out butter?

As a rule, boletus begins to appear in the places where they previously grew. Any professional mushroom picker is very familiar with boletus mushrooms. If you belong to the category of novice mushroom pickers and have decided to go into the forest for the first time, pay careful attention to the tubercles that are covered with foliage. It is in such places that boletus grows. If you remove the leaves very carefully, you will see a huge family of butter beetles. Collecting such mushrooms is a great pleasure, and therefore you can quickly fill your basket.

The collected boletus must be carefully sorted

How to sort and process boletus? Each mushroom is processed differently. Therefore, when you get home, sort the collected boletus, then process it, that is, clean, rinse, sort and cut.

  • To clean the boletus well, put it in a container with water for a while, put pressure on top of the mushrooms so that the mushrooms do not float. After the remaining grass, leaves and branches have soaked, separate them.
  • Then clean the boletus. When you clean the mushrooms, rinse them.
  • No matter how carefully you choose boletus from the forest, you will definitely come across those that contain worms. So that they float up and the larvae go to the bottom, place the butterfish in water for 3 hours, adding salt to it. Only after this, rinse the mushrooms thoroughly.
  • When you clean and rinse the boletus, start sorting them. Leave small mushrooms whole, cut off the caps of medium ones, and cut large mushrooms into pieces.

How to cook butter?

Butter is part of many dishes: soups, roasts, salads, pies, etc.

You can pickle them whole or cut into pieces. For 2 kg of mushrooms you should take:

  • 2 tablespoons of salt;
  • 1 spoon of sugar;
  • 10 tablespoons of table vinegar;
  • 5 bay leaves;
  • 10 pieces each of cloves and allspice.

The cooking recipe is as follows:

  1. To begin, boil the mushrooms in salted water. This should be done for about 20 minutes, periodically removing the resulting foam.
  2. Drain the water and place the butter in a colander.
  3. Mix all the ingredients and prepare the marinade.
  4. Add the mushrooms to the marinade and boil for 20 minutes.
  5. All that remains is to place the butter in clean jars, pour the prepared marinade on top and roll up.

Fried boletus

Required ingredients:

  • 1 kg of mushrooms;
  • 1-2 onions;
  • salt and vegetable oil.

Cooking process:

  1. Boil mushrooms in water with salt for about 20 minutes.
  2. Peel and cut the onion.
  3. Heat oil in a frying pan and add onions and mushrooms.
  4. Before finishing cooking, add salt and spices if desired.

Meat stewed with butter will be a tasty and nutritious dish. Pork loin is best suited for this.

Required Products:

  • 1 kg pork;
  • 0.5 kg of already boiled butter;
  • 2 onions;
  • 1 cup sour cream (or cream);
  • Vegetable oil, salt and favorite spices.

  1. Wash the meat and cut into pieces.
  2. Peel and chop the onion.
  3. Fry pork and onions in a frying pan with vegetable oil.
  4. Add boiled butter and salt.
  5. Stirring occasionally, fry everything together for about 30 minutes.
  6. Add spices and sour cream (cream).
  7. Simmer for 20 minutes until the liquid evaporates.

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How to quickly peel the skins of fresh boletus with boiling water, without a knife?

Be sure to clean large mushrooms, as they can give off bitterness during cooking, thereby ruining the taste of the dish. Cleaning oils at home is a complex process. But if you follow simple rules, this process will seem simple to you.

You can peel boletus without a knife

IMPORTANT: Dry the oil thoroughly before cleaning, and wear gloves on your hands.

  • Option 1. Take dry gauze and cover the mushroom cap with it. Pick up the film from below, press the cap tightly to the material, and carefully remove the skin.
  • Option 2. Take a sponge, pry the film with it, grasping its edge firmly. Remove the film with a gentle movement.
  • Option 3. Dip each mushroom cap into boiling water for about 30 seconds. After this, quickly remove the peeled skin. If the film cools down, you will not be able to remove it and it will still be on the mushroom.
  • Option 4. Do you want to dry mushrooms? Remove the skin using a stiff brush. The bristles of the brush can remove debris, dirt, sand, grass and other contaminants.

Is it necessary and how to clean small butterflies?

To know for sure whether it is necessary to peel small mushrooms or not, you should decide where exactly you will decide to use them and what dish to add them to. Small butter beans are easier and faster to clean than large representatives, since they have a dense film.

If you are making soup from butter, then thoroughly clean the mushrooms first. This is because when they come into contact with liquid, the oiler of the cap begins to swell, as a result of which the water becomes viscous and sticky, like jelly. In this case, you are unlikely to want to eat such soup, and you won’t be able to scoop it into a spoon.

To avoid peeling mushrooms, you need to soak them in cold water.

Many people, if they want to fry small butterfish or stew them, do not clean the film, because they consider this process to be very labor-intensive. If you don't want to peel the mushrooms either, just wash them thoroughly under cool water. If you decide to peel small boletus, place them in boiling water for a few seconds. Over a given period of time, dirt and grass residues will fall away, becoming clean and beautiful.

How to freeze boletus?

For freezing, choose the densest mushrooms. Small boletus can be left whole, large ones should be cut. Whatever way you decide to freeze them (boiled or fried), dry them before placing them in a freezer bag. Packaged mushrooms can be placed in the freezer.

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Since harmful microorganisms can quickly begin to multiply in defrosted mushrooms, they should be cooked immediately after defrosting. To ensure that the butter does not lose its taste and nutritional properties, it should be defrosted naturally.

How to remove mucus from butter?

Butter is very tasty when fried, dried, boiled, or pickled. But sometimes it is very difficult to remove the mucus from mushrooms, which often remains on fresh boletus. There is one excellent remedy that will help you cope with this problem - this is ordinary vinegar.

You need to remove the mucus from fresh butterfish.

  • To clean the mushrooms, boil a small amount of vinegar (4 tbsp) and add water (1 l). After this, place the butter in boiling liquid for 20 seconds, take it out, wipe it, and clean it. Thanks to vinegar and water, mucus and dirt will come off faster, and the film will be easily removed from the caps.
  • The next simple method is this: soak a sponge in a weak vinegar solution and wipe the mushrooms thoroughly. This method will allow you to eliminate mucus and remove the skin. When you remove the skin from the caps, place the boletus in water for about 20 minutes so that no remaining dirt or sand remains. Rinse the mushrooms in salted water with a little vinegar.

How to process boletus?

Butter mushrooms can spoil quickly, so if you are not going to cook them right away, you should prepare the mushrooms for storage. For this:

  1. Sort through the entire harvest. Once you find wormholes, cut them out. Throw away any damaged copies.
  2. Place the mushrooms in a container of salted water and leave it there for a while. During soaking, larvae and worms that might have gotten here will come out.
  3. Rinse the boletus and remove the film from the cap.
  4. Place the mushrooms out to dry a little.

You can freeze boletus boiled or fried. When cooking, the water needs to be salted. If you plan to fry them, then avoid using animal fat. They will taste better if you fry the mushrooms in butter.

Is it necessary to clean the film from the boletus? Is it possible not to peel the boletus for marinating?

When you bring mushrooms home, start processing them immediately, since butter mushrooms tend to spoil very quickly. Many people do not like these mushrooms because processing takes a very long time and is considered very difficult. A large amount of dirt sticks to the oiler cap, and this dirt must be removed with a knife.

Without cleaning, mushrooms can quickly deteriorate.

When the mushrooms are cleaned, soak them for about 20 minutes, rinse thoroughly, and boil immediately. At the same time, keep the pan with butter on the fire, when the water boils, boil them for some more time.

Before pickling mushrooms, as was written a little above, they must be especially thoroughly cleaned. But there are housewives who use a simpler method - they simply wash the mushrooms under running water.

How to clean an oiler in the forest

After harvesting mushrooms, you can clean them right in the forest. If it’s a sunny day and the mushrooms are dry, it’s much more convenient and enjoyable to process them right away. You won’t have to drag extra dirt into the house, and working outdoors won’t be so boring.

How to clean boletus in the field? Everything is very simple:

• the tip of the cap must be carefully broken;

• use a mushroom harvesting knife to pick up the edge of the film and pull it off the cap.

The fresh skin comes off fairly easily and cleanup doesn't take much time. However, this method will not work if the weather is rainy. Wet caps become very slippery; you will have to take the harvest home and dry the mushrooms.

Do you need to soak boletus overnight?

Since boletus has specific characteristics, you will have to follow some rules when processing them. Since mushrooms have a spongy structure, they can absorb a lot of liquid, and therefore it is not advisable to soak butter mushrooms.

Butter does not need to be soaked overnight

  • If you want to rinse the boletus, then do this only after you have cleaned them and removed the sticky film.
  • There are a large number of mushrooms. Many types are soaked for a couple of hours before cooking; there are also those that need to be soaked even for a day. But boletus does not belong to this category.
  • And not because they absorb moisture. And due to the fact that during soaking the boletus can simply deteriorate, plus the mushroom caps after soaking will be very difficult for you to clean, as they will swell greatly.

Professional mushroom pickers and cooks advise soaking the boletus for only a few minutes, stirring it well so that it does not have time to absorb water. You will do the same, after which simply rinse the mushrooms thoroughly, drain them in a colander, and then prepare any dish of your choice from the butter.

Video: Do ​​you need to clean boletus?



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An oil can is found in the basket of every mushroom picker. It has excellent taste and aroma, and is also suitable for preparing all kinds of recipes. But to get a really good dish, you need to know how to properly prepare the mushroom before cooking. The article discusses in detail how you can quickly remove the skin from butternuts, and also describes why and in what cases this is necessary.

Butter with garlic and mustard

The preparation with garlic and mustard seeds is basically similar in preparation technology to the classic recipe.

Ingredients for preparation:

  • Mushrooms – 2 kg.
  • Water – 1 l.
  • Sugar – 40 g.
  • Salt – 50 g.
  • Vinegar 9% - 50 ml.
  • Garlic – 10 cloves.
  • Mustard seeds – 1 tbsp. l.
  • Bay leaf and allspice – 10 pcs.

Cooking steps:

  1. The butter is placed in a saucepan, filled with water, salt and sugar, as well as all the spices.
  2. Garlic is cut into slices and placed on the bottom of sterilized jars.
  3. Cook the mushrooms for 15 minutes. 5 minutes before readiness, add vinegar.
  4. Place the finished boletus into jars, distributing the marinade evenly so that it is 0.5 cm higher than the product.

Expert opinion

Melnikov Vladimir Mikhailovich

Knows 1000 ways to cook, pickle and marinate any types of mushrooms

The jars are rolled up and wrapped for slow cooling. Butter prepared according to this recipe turns out spicy and distinctly crispy.

Do I need to clean the butterflies?

Butterflies are found everywhere in the temperate and northern climate zones; they are a traditional forest species and belong to the edible form. However, most all kinds of recipes still recommend peeling mushrooms from their outer coverings.

And there are several reasons for this:

  • during growth, the skin accumulates dust particles containing heavy metals and other toxic pollutants on its surface;
  • the unpleasant mucus of the mushroom can be completely removed only by removing the peel;
  • only after cleaning can you be 100% sure that there are no false oils in the basket;
  • unpeeled mushrooms can taste bitter, especially large specimens;
  • the peel gives the brine a dark color during preservation;
  • peeled fruit bodies in dishes look more aesthetically pleasing;
  • Removing the top covers allows you to completely eliminate the remains of soil, forest litter, etc.

Small boletus

Young boletus often does not exceed 1–2 cm in diameter, so the question of whether they need to be cleaned is quite relevant. Sometimes this process can take several hours, which is not always advisable. To decide whether to peel mushrooms or not, you should ask yourself about the ultimate purpose of using the product.

If a small mushroom will be used for preparing soups and other first courses, cleaning must be done. Without this process, the mucus from the peel will give the broth a grayish-brown tint, and can also lead to a slippery, jelly-like state. This almost always leads the dish to be aesthetically unsuitable, since not everyone will eat soup with an uncharacteristic consistency and cloudiness.

You can not remove the film from the cap and stem of a small mushroom only if in the future it will be used for stewed and canned dishes, as well as frying. At the same time, you must remember that the final dish can be painted in all sorts of brown shades. This will not change the taste characteristics of the mushroom and other ingredients, but will undoubtedly affect its aesthetics.

Collection of boletus

It is best if you start preparing for cleaning mushrooms in advance - while still in the forest. After all, it is known how much garbage, blades of grass, soil and waste remains after cleaning mushrooms. But if part of the work is done in the fresh air, then you won’t have to pore over a bowl of mushrooms.

When cutting a mushroom, you need to immediately inspect it for the presence of worms. If you visually do not notice anything suspicious, cut off the lower part of the leg to get rid of adhering soil. Using a special brush or knife, remove at least the bulk of the adhering debris from the cap: leaves, blades of grass, pine needles.

The peculiarity of butter mushrooms is that when cleaning mushrooms, the skin is removed from the cap. True, not for everyone, but only for large specimens. Since this skin gives the finished mushrooms a bitter taste. And the appearance of the mushrooms with dark rags on the cap leaves much to be desired.

But the skins of small butterfish are not removed . And no one complained about the bitter taste of such mushrooms. Apparently, the skin begins to taste bitter much later.

Cleaning methods

Most often, mushrooms collected in the forest are peeled using only a sharp knife. This is a rather labor-intensive and lengthy process that requires a lot of skill and patience. However, among the people there is more than one home method that allows you to significantly reduce the effort required for cleaning. To do this, you only need a few additional items that can be found in almost any kitchen.

Did you know? In England and Germany, boletus mushrooms are considered poisonous mushrooms, so they are not used in cooking.

Boiling water and steam

The quickest and easiest way to clean mushrooms is by short-term heat treatment, the so-called blanching. This allows you to soften and exfoliate the outer skin, making it possible to remove the skin with one hand in the future. Often, during treatment with boiling water or steam, the peel itself bursts and separates from the fruiting body, after which it is enough to wipe the mushrooms with a napkin.

To carry out the procedure correctly, just dip the butter in boiling water or hold it in a colander over a actively boiling water bath. The procedure should be carried out for no more than 30 seconds, otherwise the pulp will lose its elasticity and during subsequent processing will turn into a monotonous mass.

Did you know? Tropical forms of butterfly are real predators. Together with mucus, they secrete a specific substance that is capable of dissolving adhered insects to a homogeneous mass (after which the secretion is absorbed through the outer integument).

Using vegetable oil

If you want to clean boletus without any risk of damaging the pulp, you can use an equally effective method using vegetable oil. The product allows you to significantly reduce the sticky properties of fungal mucus, which is often the main difficulty in cleaning it.

The method is quite simple; all you need to do is lubricate the mushrooms and a peeling knife with any vegetable oil. In its absence, you can also use old waste oily product after frying or deep-frying. During cleaning, it is recommended to regularly moisten the fruit body and blade, which increases the cleaning efficiency significantly.


A simpler method that does not involve the use of a knife or other sharp objects will help you get rid of the mushroom film. That is why you can resort to it even if small children want to join the process of cooking mushrooms.

The method is quite simple: to remove the peel, you need to take a thick and dry kitchen sponge, and then thoroughly wipe the butter with it . This is done in a circular motion for several minutes, after which the fruiting body can be washed under running water.

Important! To make it easier to clean fresh mushrooms before the main procedure, it is recommended to lightly dry the product in the sun until excess moisture is completely removed.

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