Processing of electronic thermometers according to SANPIN

Many consider the familiar and familiar mercury thermometers to be a relic and find many shortcomings in these useful devices:
  • the poisonous filling, of course, is the main thing for which mercury thermometers are criticized;
  • the fragility of the material from which they are made (glass), the danger of breaking or crushing the device;
  • the long period of time required to measure body temperature.

Indeed, a mercury thermometer is nothing more than a sealed glass tube, inside of which there is a thin vessel with two grams of liquid harmful metal and a degree scale.

The mercury inside poses a real health hazard to those in whose apartment a thermometer accidentally breaks, but there are very simple precautions that you can take to protect yourself and your household from toxic fumes getting into the air.

Safety regulations

  • store the thermometer in a hard case, which always comes with it when sold;
  • remove the device only for its intended use, and then immediately put the case with the thermometer in a certain place;
  • when measuring the patient’s temperature, make sure that he does not fall asleep with the device under his armpit;
  • It is better to hold the child whose body temperature needs to be measured at this time by the hand, not allowing him to be distracted from the procedure and make sudden movements;
  • Under no circumstances should the thermometer be left in sight of children or stored in a place accessible to them;
  • do not boil the device for disinfection purposes, as the glass may simply burst;


Is it dangerous to break a thermometer? Mercury, thanks to which temperature is measured, is element 80 of the periodic table and is included in hazard class 1, representing a cumulative poison. This metal is in a liquid state within the range from -39 to +357 degrees. It turns out that this is the only metal that at room temperature is in a liquid aggregate form, and not in a solid. From +18, mercury evaporates, forming toxic components. Is a broken mercury thermometer dangerous in an apartment? Due to this property, this incident is considered dangerous.

A regular thermometer contains mercury in the amount of 2-5 g. Is it dangerous to break a thermometer in a room? If a component in such quantity evaporates in a room of 18-20 sq. m., then the vapor concentration will be 100 mg per cubic meter. This indicator is 300 times higher than the maximum permissible concentration for residential premises, since at normal levels the level of the component is no more than 0.0003 mg per cubic meter.

With natural ventilation of rooms, this excess does not entail anything; moreover, evaporation of the substance requires an increased temperature. But if the proper actions are not taken, a broken thermometer will increase the MPC (permissible concentration limit) of vapors by 50-100 times, which is very dangerous.

Is a broken thermometer dangerous for humans? Mercury can accumulate in the body. If it is not carefully collected, the effects of inhaled fumes may take several weeks to appear. In this case, it will be quite difficult to establish the causes of the malaise.

Advantages of a mercury thermometer

It is not for nothing that this device is still used for its intended purpose, and not everyone is in a hurry to replace it with electronic devices for measuring temperature.

Its advantages are the following:

  • accuracy of the result; the maximum error is no more than 0.1 degrees;
  • versatility: the device can be used orally (for adults) or measure temperature by holding it in the armpit;
  • the result obtained is stored until the thermometer is shaken;
  • To sterilize, simply wipe the device with a cotton pad soaked in a disinfectant solution;
  • sold at a very affordable price;
  • does not require any batteries or recharging.

To get the most accurate result, the device must be kept in direct contact with the body for 10 minutes.

Some will say that this is too long, and if you need to determine body temperature in the shortest possible time, this option will not work. Perhaps this is true. However, if you have a cold or the flu, you can use this device without rushing anywhere.

A mercury thermometer is more accurate, but an electronic one is safer

Which thermometer should you trust - mercury or electronic?

In 2009, Europe abandoned the use of mercury thermometers. They want to introduce a similar rule in Russia. The thing is that such devices often break, and the disposal of dangerous mercury is expensive for the budget.

However, no one plans to ban mercury thermometers in Belarus yet. They are available in every pharmacy and are much cheaper than electronic ones. Komsomolskaya Pravda decided to study all the pros and cons of mercury and electronic thermometers.

Electronic ones are inaccurate!

The first time I began to mistrust electronic thermometers was literally a month ago. Having fallen ill, she called a doctor to her home. Before the doctor arrived, I measured my temperature with a mercury thermometer - 38.5. Five minutes later, the doctor handed me an electronic device, which showed... 37.5. A whole degree of difference? By the way, I held the second thermometer under my armpit for only three minutes, and I had to look at the result immediately after the sound signal.

“You measured the temperature incorrectly,” my colleague assured me. — I also have an electronic thermometer at home. The instructions say: “Remove the thermometer from the armpit 5 minutes after the beep.” I compared the accuracy of an electronic thermometer using a mercury analogue. There is no difference - degree to degree.

On the Internet we found instructions for several more electronic thermometers from different manufacturers. Somewhere in the instructions for use it is written that you need to check the temperature immediately after the sound signal, somewhere they advise holding the thermometer for another 3-4 minutes. Yes, you can get confused with these instructions. It’s much easier with a good old thermometer: hold it under your armpit, hold it for 5-7 minutes and check.

“In fact, you can’t find a more accurate device than a mercury thermometer,” comments Dmitry Chesnov, head of the admissions department, pediatrician at the 3rd City Children’s Hospital. — Moreover, the more complex the device, the less accurate it is. We experimented at one time - and the results sometimes varied. It happens that you measure your temperature with an electronic thermometer, and it gives you 34 degrees. But this cannot be. Then we measure the temperature two more times and calculate the average result. The thermometers we use say that you need to check the temperature after the sound signal. This takes 3-4 minutes.

There are too many problems with mercury

The biggest problem with mercury thermometers is that they break. And mercury vapor can cause serious poisoning.

“In the hospital, we have been using only electronic thermometers for several years,” says Dmitry Chesnov. - After all, mercury ones fail only when they break. Mercury flows under the baseboards. It is too difficult to remove it later. Every time you need to call specialists from the Ministry of Emergency Situations and isolate patients and staff. And now there are a lot of electronic devices. For infants, for example, there are even special stickers on the forehead. There are also pacifier thermometers that have an elastic tip, so the baby will never bite it off or get hurt.


What to do, if…

...the thermometer broke

- take everyone out of the room, close the doors, windows and vents so that the mercury does not fly away;

- take a large jar and pour a solution of potassium permanganate into it (2 grams per liter of water. - Ed.);

- place the thermometer fragments and mercury in a jar with a solution. When collecting mercury, you need to wear rubber gloves. Small balls can be removed using a syringe, adhesive tape or tape. If mercury gets on your clothing, it should be thrown away;

- the surface on which the mercury was located must be treated with the same solution of potassium permanganate. If mercury gets on the carpet, for example, it is better to call rescuers by calling 101, who will demercurize the room. Call this number even if you are not sure that you know how to behave correctly in the event of a broken thermometer. Specialists will also tell you the nearest department of the Ministry of Emergency Situations, where you can bring a jar of mercury.

...the thermometer is intact

But at the same time, you want to dispose of it properly, and not throw it into the same garbage chute. After all, one mercury thermometer can poison six thousand cubic meters of air! The only organization that disposes of mercury thermometers is Beltsvetmet OJSC. The organization is located in the village of Gatovo. That is, you will have to go there. The only plus is that recycling is free for ordinary citizens.


The instructions for the mercury thermometer say that the warranty period is 12 months, storage period is 18. In fact, if the thermometer is used correctly, it will last ten years. Manufacturers of electronic devices provide a guarantee of correct body measurements for two years. Next, it is advised to double-check the results. Apparently, using new mercury thermometers.


What is normal temperature?

Normal body temperature is considered to be 36.6 degrees. This is what is written in the instructions for the mercury thermometer. But in annotations for electronic devices the indicators are different. If you measure the temperature orally, the norm is considered to be a temperature from 35.7 to 37.3 degrees, rectally - 36.2 - 37.7. With the usual method, that is, under the armpit, a healthy body temperature is considered to be from 35.2 to 36.7 degrees.

“Normal body temperature is up to 37 degrees,” says Dmitry Mikhailovich. “But in children the rates may be slightly higher. The younger the child, the higher his temperature. For example, for infants it can be up to 37.4 degrees - provided that they have normal behavior and well-being. Children of this age have not yet developed a thermoregulation system.

How to use a thermometer correctly?

Electronic devices, as we have already written, are quite safe to use. They do not break, mercury does not leak, and they can be stored without problems. With mercury thermometers everything is much more complicated. Firstly, the ambient air temperature should not go beyond -35 to +42 degrees. The thermometer should be stored in its case and strictly vertically. In a horizontal position, a cone containing mercury can break up into separate droplets. And then you have to shake the thermometer for a long time to collect the mercury into one column. If you store a mercury thermometer incorrectly, it will show false results.

Best before date

There is no expiration date for a mercury thermometer. As long as it remains safe and sound, it will continue to work with the same high precision. This is due to the simplicity of this device: mercury expands when heated. That's the whole principle of its operation.

Some argue that over time, glass can bend and crack, but for this to happen, not even years, but decades must pass! Thus, it turns out that with careful storage, the mercury thermometer, familiar to many from childhood, may well serve its owner throughout his life.

You can store the thermometer in the refrigerator

Red alcohol is safe. Metallic is dangerous mercury. Also place a jar or bottle on the glass vessel. No matter where you go, it’s even more dangerous. Mercury as a toxic substance will be incriminated as a terrorist attack. So throw it in the trash, which is often taken out. This is so much advice.

mercury freezes at -39º C

at -40º C you can cast beautiful things in ice molds. When the temperature changes, the density remains almost unchanged

So the mercury thermometer will not burst in the cold

Well, a question. You don’t even need to use this thermometer directly here

Just remember that when it’s cold (I’m sorry, when the ambient temperature drops) it crawls into its ball (a container with mercury, which is a sensor in a thermometer), so the border of the mercury in the tube goes down - the mercury obviously contracts (decreases in volume). Is the outer shell cracked? If the tube with mercury itself is intact, then nothing bad will happen. It is incredibly durable. It’s not even necessary to take it out somewhere. Place in a secluded place out of reach of children. In the future, there will definitely be services for collecting toxic substances, and they will even come to your home. But this will not happen soon.

Well, a question. You don’t even need to use this thermometer directly here

Liquid technical thermometers

Liquid thermometers work by heating the liquid that is inside. This type of thermometer is often used in everyday life: to measure the temperature of air, the human body and liquids.

The operating principle of this thermometer is that the liquid inside the thermometer body expands when heated.

All liquid thermometers are divided into mercury thermometers and thermometers with non-mercury filling. The selected type depends on the temperatures that will be measured:

  • -40 – +600 degrees Celsius – a mercury thermometer is used;
  • -60 – +120 degrees Celsius – filled with various mercury alloys;
  • -80 – +50 degrees Celsius – you can use thermometers with alcohol filler.

Temperature conditions in a Samsung refrigerator

The choice of climate is influenced by the type of equipment and its model. Indicators vary even inside the refrigeration chamber itself. The average temperature in it should not exceed +3 . Some units have a freshness zone in which the temperature is set to 0 degrees. The standard temperature for the freezer will be -18.

Before setting the parameters, you need to read the instructions. The control panel has a built-in display that displays information about the selected mode and possible errors. For single-chamber models, the temperature setting is as follows:

  1. Measuring the exact temperature to which food is cooled. To measure it, place a glass filled with water on the middle shelf.
  2. The optimal climate inside the device is indicated by indicators within +3-4. If there are deviations of 2 degrees up or down, the mode must be adjusted.
  3. Find the “Fridge” or “Coolihg Power” button on the panel. Press it.
  4. If there is no button, use the thermostat knob by turning it to the desired angle. It allows you to adjust the temperature in the range from +1 to +7.

It is not recommended to set the thermostat to minimum. This leads to increased energy consumption and premature wear of equipment, and the quality and taste of the products may deteriorate.

For normal operation of the refrigerator, it is enough to set the regulator to the middle position.

Samsung refrigerator prices

A refrigerator is not a cheap piece of equipment, so you want it to serve well for more than one year. To avoid problems in its operation, it is necessary to regularly maintain optimal temperature conditions in it and keep order on the shelves. Different categories of products have their own requirements for temperature parameters - this should be taken into account when installing the microclimate. Then the products will retain their freshness and taste for a long time, and the service life of the equipment will pleasantly please you.

To quickly freeze food, you can use the shock mode. When at the lowest possible temperature they freeze instantly, retaining their beneficial properties. After final freezing, they are stored at temperatures from -8 to -12.

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